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Biology 1002B Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Repressor, Fishing Rod, Reverse Transcriptase

Course Code
BIOL 1002B
Tom Haffie
Study Guide

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1. Short interfering RNA: Interferes transcription to translation.
-Directs mRNA to be degraded in nucleus by nuclease.
2. MicroRNAs (miRNA): Small RNA transcribed by genes
-Folds to form hairpin look with itself and segment of double stranded RNA
-miRNA leaves nucleus→ Dicer enzyme removes hairpin loop→ Leaves
stranded RNA→ Protein complex binds and removes one of the strands→
Remaining single strand is bound to protein complex
-Complex finds mature mRNA w matching nucleotides to miRNA and
degrades it.
*Only mRNA is degraded miRNA remains to degrade more mRNA
-If mRNA is not perfect match to miRNA: Delay
-mRNA is attached to miRNA but not degraded
-It is delayed until dislodged or dislocated
Transposons: Jumping Genes
-Segments of DNA able to change location within genome
-Accounts for 50% of human genome
-Allows for genetic diversity
-Transposase: Recognizes ends of transposons→Cuts it out→Relocates into diff. area
-Destination: -Non-coding→ No change
-In middle of coding gene = Can affect transcription of gene→ Changes the protein
-Example: cancer (not fart), Alzheimers, also positive results
-Alternative splicing: Cut out in splicing→ No change -Not cut out→ Gene is expression
2 tropomyosin are different - different shape and folding
o Difference in AA seq so diff RNA sequence
o Smooth and muscle cell tropomyosin
Initiate transcription of the same gene but splice it differently
Smooth: 1,2,4,5,6,7,8,9,12
Muscle cell: 1,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11
This is how you get different coding sequence by alternative
Regulation of gene expression:
o Regulate gene expression using operons (on-off switch depending on
conditions around the cell
o Lactose - catabolized by 3 important proteins
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