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Midterm

Biology 1002B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Insertional Mutagenesis, Phylogenetic Tree, BleomycinExam


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1002B
Professor
Denis Maxwell
Study Guide
Midterm

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Biology 1002B February Make-up Term Test 2017 Page of 12
Code 111 Code 111 Code 111
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34 Questions in 80 Minutes
Circle the best single letter choice for each of the following questions before transferring your
answers to your computer sheet.
Note: Questions may have 3, 4 or 5 choices.
1. The image at right is a phylogenetic tree.
Where on this tree should
Chlamydomonas be placed?
2. Insertional mutagenesis, followed by a screening process to find mutants, is a powerful
approach to uncovering genes that are required for a particular phenotype (e.g. phototaxis).
Which of the following statements regarding this mutagenesis/screening approach
is correct?
1. Insertional mutagenesis results in cells containing a gene that synthesizes the
antibiotic bleomycin.
2. Mutagenized cells where a rRNA gene has been disrupted will probably die.
3. After two weeks, the cells that survive would have growth rates similar to wild-type cells.
4. An effective screen allows one to rapidly assess large numbers of mutants for the lack of a
particular trait.
A. 1,2 and 3
B. 1 and 3
C. 2 and 4
D. 4 only
E. All of 1,2,3 and 4 are correct

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Biology 1002B February Make-up Term Test 2017 Page of 12
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3. Lets agree that part of the definition of a gene is that, “it is made of DNA.”
Which of the following statements about genes is also correct?
A. All functional genes are transcribed into RNA.
B The bases making up bacterial genes are different than the bases making up
Chlamydomonas genes.
C. Housekeeping genes tend to show induced expression.
D. If a gene is transcribed; the resulting RNA will be translated.
4. One reason that RNA is less suitable than DNA as the repository of hereditary information
is that RNA is more easily degraded than DNA.
Which of the following chemical changes commonly occurs during RNA degradation?
A. Conversion of ribose to deoxyribose.
B. Introduction of a OH group on the 2' ribose carbon.
C. Breakage of the bond between phosphate and a ribose.
D. Conversion of the base uracil to cytosine.
5. Researchers are actively addressing some of the most fundamental questions about how
life started on Earth.
Which of the following questions regarding the origin of life has been the most difficult to
find reasonable answers for?
A. How could short peptides possibly have been synthesized without enzymes?
B. Which of the major macromolecules developed first: DNA, RNA, or protein?
C. How were the building blocks of life synthesized without oxygen?
D. How did macromolecules become organized into replicating cells?
6. The transition from the abiotic to the biotic world is believed to have occurred between
3.5 and 4 billion years ago. Molecular analysis suggests that all current forms of life are
descendants of a single type of organism called the Last Universal Common Ancestor
(LUCA).
Which of the following statements regarding the relationship between LUCA and the earliest
forms of life is likely true?
1. LUCA was not the only type of organism on Earth at that time.
2. Like LUCA, all life on Earth possessed DNA as its genetic material.
3. LUCA evolved from an earlier life form.
4. LUCA was the first form of life that evolved with a nucleus.
A. 1,2 and 3
B. 1 and 3
C. 2 and 4
D. 4 only
E. All of 1,2,3 and 4 are correct

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Biology 1002B February Make-up Term Test 2017 Page of 12
Code 111 Code 111 Code 111
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7. Eukaryotes are distinctly different than archaeans and bacteria that both possess
prokaryotic cell structure.
Which of the statements below is the most accurate comparison of these three cell types?
A. Since it lacks pores, the nucleoid membrane in archaeans prevents RNA from crossing into
the cytoplasm.
B. Since they lack ribosomes, archaeans conduct translation distinctly differently as compared
to eukaryotes.
C. Since they lack an endomembrane system, bacteria must have a different mechanism to
get proteins to the plasma membrane compared to eukaryotes.
D. Since they don't have chloroplasts like some eukaryotic cells, bacteria lack the ability to
photosynthesize.
8. Biological catalysts can be divided into two categories: enzymes and ribozymes.
Which of the following statements makes an accurate distinction between enzymes and
ribozymes?
1. Chlamydomonas has enzymes, but it doesn't have ribozymes.
2. Enzymes are coded by genes, ribozymes are are not.
3. Enzymes can increase the rate of a reaction, ribozymes can not.
4. Enzyme catalysis is relatively fast; ribozyme catalysis is relatively slow.
A. 1,2 and 3
B. 1 and 3
C. 2 and 4
D. 4 only
E. All of 1,2,3 and 4 are correct
9. The image at right shows the change in
transcript abundance of the rubp1 gene
in Chlamydomonas in response to a shift
from darkness into light.
Which of the following interpretations is consistent with the data shown above?
A. The initial increase in transcript abundance in response to light can be explained by
increased rate of protein translation.
B. rubp1 shows the classic transcript profile for a housekeeping gene.
C. The rise in transcript abundance for 1 to 8 hours can be explained by a increase in mRNA
breakdown
D. The decrease in signal intensity from 8 to 48 h can be explained by a decrease in the rate
of transcription.
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