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Biology 1201A- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 73 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1201A
Professor
Jennifer Waugh
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Biology 1201A
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Biology 1201A Lecture Notes
September 16, 2015
Evolution
History of Evolution
What is a theory?
Organizing the historical development of evolutionary thought
Road map for this course
What is a Theory
Common vernacular: an untested idea or opinion (speculation)
Scientific definition: an explanation of a set of natural phenomena, based upon proven
or testable (hypothesis and observations)
Example of scientific theories:
Big Bang
Early evolutionary thought
Static classification and characterization (things aren't changing, always the same
People
Aristotle 384-322 BCE
Ranking from simple to complex (Scala natural)
Natural theology (1700’s)
Carl von Linne (1707-78)
Linnaean system
Le Comte de Buffon (1707-1788)
These structures once served a purposed meaning that these animals must have
changed since their creation
vestigial traits- the useless body parts we observe today
Transformational theory of evolution
Jean Baptiste Lamark (1744-1829)
Species evolve to better fit their environment
1. Use and disuse
2. Inheritance of acquired trait (passing on certain traits)
Geological patterns
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Biology 1201A Lecture Notes
September 16, 2015
Georges Cuvier (1769-1832)
Believed in the fixity of species
changes in fossil forms a result of repeated catastrophic events and new creations (e.g.
floods wiping out certain species)
Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
Natural agents currently at work have been at work throughout earths history-
uniformitarianism
Darwin Theory
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Evolution by natural selection
Species change gradually through time due to interactions between individuals’ traits
and their environment
Scared to tell the world his theory (lots of belief in religion at the time)
Hypothesized that the organisms on the Galapagos originated from South American
ancestors and each species had changed after being isolated on a particular island
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