Biology 1201A- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 113 pages long!)

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Why do cells divide: growth of an organism, repairs of tissue, genetic continuity (reproduction, differentiation (allows for different types of tissue) Cell cycle: cells are not always dividing (cid:523)some don(cid:495)t divide at all ex. Rbc(cid:495)s, and some are in constant division ex. Skin cells: cell cycle = interphase + mitosis. Interphase: non-dividing phase (growth, replication, preparation for mitosis) Gap 1 (g1) no replication/synthesis: cell makes rna, protein, etc, *whether the cell divides rapidly or slowly depends on g1. Synthesis (s) dna replication/synthesis: cell duplicates chromosomal proteins and dna and continues synthesis of other molecules, cell makes rna, protein, etc. Gap 0 (g0) not technically a (cid:498)phase(cid:499: state of division arrest (fully mature, mitosis: nuclear division. Each exposed polynucleotide chain (old strand) acts as a template for synthesis of its complement: result: 2 identical dna molecules. Complementary base pair: replicated chromosome condensation begins. Dna (cid:494)packed(cid:495) around nucleosomes and coiled, then looped onto scaffold.

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