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Final

Biology 1201A Study Guide - Final Guide: Centrosome, Zygote, Histogram


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1201A
Professor
Jennifer Waugh
Study Guide
Final

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Inheritance of Sameness (Chapter 12.1-12.4 & 8)
Part A: DNA Structure and Replication
Define, use and understand relevant vocabulary (e.g. including but not
limited to: nucleotide, phosphate group, thymine, complementary base pair,
double-helix, 3’, antiparallel, Chargaff’s rule, hydrogen bond, deoxyribose,
pyrimidine, semiconservative replication, isotope, DNA polymerase,
discontinuous replication, leading strand, helicase, replication bubble,
telomerase, proofreading, mismatch repair, etc.);
Describe, draw, and identify characteristics of DNA
oHelical structure
oSugar-phosphate alternating backbones attached to nitrogenous
bases (by the deoxyribose sugar)
oThe two backbones/strings are held together by hydrogen bonding
between the nitrogenous bases
Purines: Guanine, Adenine
Pyrimidine: Thymine, Cytosine
oG - C (3 hydrogen bonds) & A - T (2 hydrogen bonds)
Recognize and understand the contributions of historical research
and people (plus the general set-up and results of their studies) to our
current understanding of DNA structure/function
Fredrich Meischer
oGathered puss cells from bandages; found acid that was high in
phosphorus content which led to discovery of nuclein (DNA)
Fredrick Griffith
oSmooth and rough strain of pneumonia -- smooth had capsule
surrounding it that didn't let the mouse's white blood cells attack it;
rough did not. Mice injected with smooth would die, rough would not kill
the mouse. When injected with "dead" smooth it would live until rough
pneumonia was injected. This showed that something from the smooth
changed the composition of the rough in order to kill the mouse. -->
Transforming Principle
Oswald Avery & Co.
oContinues Griffith's work w/ the streptococcus to identify what the
transforming principle actually was
oTook sample of dead S strain and put into 3 containers which each
contained enzymes that would either break down: proteins, RNA, or DNA
oInject each into the mouse followed by living R strain and observed if
mouse lived/died
Mouse died when they killed RNA/proteins, but no
"transformation" occurred when the DNA was targeted
Hershey & Chase

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oIs protein or DNA the "transforming" principle?
oInfected E.Coli w/ radioactive phosphorus and radioactive sulfur
because there is no sulfur in DNA and no phosphorus in proteins
oE. coli infected the bacteria and blended them to remove the coats and
see if the "offspring" phages would be radioactive.
oOnly the Phosphorus labelled DNA made the babies radioactive
Erwin Chargaff
oCreated the relationship now known as "Chargaff's Rules"
oDetermined that A&T have the same proportion so they were always
paired together and G & C have the same proportion so they were always
paired together
Rosalind Franklin
oX-Ray diffraction analysis to determine the helical structure of DNA
Watson & Crick
oUsed previous research in order to put together the complete structure of
DNA
Describe and identify the function of various enzymes/structures in
DNA replication
DNA helicase: unzips the helical structure of DNA by breaking H-bonds
Single-stranded binding proteins (SSB): stabilized the DNA structure to
prevent it from re-coiling/re-joining after the replication fork
Topoisomerase/Gyrase: cut & twist DNA to prevent the supercoiling of
DNA before the replication fork
RNA Primase: lays down RNA primers in order to provide the OH group
for DNA polymerase to add nucleotides
Leading Lagging
DNA Polymerase III: lays
down the base pairs of the
daughter strand
DNA Polymerase II:
proofreads the base pairing of the
strands
DNA Polymerase I: removes
RNA primers
DNA Polymerase III: lays down the
base pairs of the daughter strand
DNA Polymerase II: proofreads the
base pairing of the strands
Nucleotides are added on in small
segments of DNA called Okazaki
Fragments
DNA Polymerase I: removes RNA
primers
Ligase: glues together segments of
DNA into one continuous chain
Explain how DNA structure contributes to replication fidelity
Base pairing: allows DNA polymerase to "know" what base to add
Only 4 Possible Bases: C, G, A, T(U in RNA)
Helical structure: easy for winding/unwinding

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Hydrogen Bonding: strong enough to hold the two strands together, but weak
enough to be easily broken by helicase for the purpose of replication
Identify the problem(s) inherent in DNA replication for linear
chromosomes;
oOnce DNA replication is completed, there are 4 RNA primers
"leftover" that are then removed by DNA Polymerase I. When the primers
are removed, a small section of DNA is removed as well. Thus, our DNA
is/would be shortened every time replication occurs
oLinear DNA has telomeres at the "ends" of the DNA-- this is a
repetitive segment of DNA that is just there to lengthen the DNA
Describe, identify, and explain the role of telomerase
oTelomerase maintains the "buffer" by adding telomere repeats to
the ends of chromosomes
oThus, when DNA is shortened, the material that is "cut off" is a
repetitive sequence -- not an important region of DNA that codes for
proteins
Identify and describe the various ‘proofreading’ and ‘mismatch’
repair mechanisms;
oDNA polymerase has proofreading ability to fix mismatched bases
oMismatch Repair enzymes that inspect the newly synthesized
daughter DNA strand and recognizes any difference in shape/size that
could indicate a wrong base-pair match. It takes out the section of DNA
surrounding that mistake
oDNA Polymerase fills in the gaps with correct base pairs
Part B: Mitosis and cytokinesis
Define, use and understand relevant vocabulary (e.g. including but not
limited to:
oChromatid
oChromosome
oCheckpoint
ospindle fibre
ometaphase plate
oKinesin
oEnzyme
Identify the main purposes of cell division in eukaryotes
oStop the cell from popping from being too big
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