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Final

3229G Final: Final review

4 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
Biology 3229F/G
Professor
Graeme Taylor

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Animal diversity
Phylogeny recapitulates ontogeny – The idea is that the embryo goes through the phylogenic
tree as it develops to reach nal stage
Metazoans – radial or bilateral symmetry
Mollusca
7 classes
AM – Aplacophora, Monoplacophora
CS – Cephalopoda, Scaphopoda
GBP – Gastropoda, Bivalve, Polyplacophora
Gastropods – primarily marine. Found everywhere but the air.
Oysters – abductor muscles to close shell. Only have muscles to keep shell closed
Bivalves
Small foot = thick shell
Large foot = thin shell
Larger foot allows it to dig deeper and require less protec+on from the outside.
Scaphopoda
Don’t have gills. Have captacula instead
Burrow into the ground. Sister group is the bivalve.
Polyplacophora
- 8 plates
- broad 1at foot
- Herbivores
- Inter-+dal
Aplacophora
Worms without shells.
- foot represented by pedal groove
Monoplacophora
- 20 species
looks like half a bivalve. Thought to be ex+nct. Kind of sort of displays segmenta+on, but they
don’t have molluscs with segmenta+ons
ctenidium = gills
Synapomorphies of molluscs
- bilateral
- mantle with shell
- torsion
- once torsion occurs, bilateral symmetry goes away
- Anus is on top of head
- Torsion was never evolved out of. Torsion exists because they can t into shell easier
- dorsal visceral masses
- buccal (mouth) with a radula. It has a mouth with radula (teeth)
- large muscular foot
- complete gut marked with regional specializa+on

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Description
Animal diversity Phylogeny recapitulates ontogeny – The idea is that the embryo goes through the phylogenic tree as it develops to reach final stage Metazoans – radial or bilateral symmetry Mollusca 7 classes AM – Aplacophora, Monoplacophora CS – Cephalopoda, Scaphopoda GBP – Gastropoda, Bivalve, Polyplacophora Gastropods – primarily marine. Found everywhere but the air. Oysters – abductor muscles to close shell. Only have muscles to keep shell closed Bivalves Small foot = thick shell Large foot = thin shell Larger foot allows it to dig deeper and require less protection from the outside. Scaphopoda Don’t have gills. Have captacula instead Burrow into the ground. Sister group is the bivalve. Polyplacophora - 8 plates - broad flat foot - Herbivores - Inter-tidal Aplacophora Worms without shells. - foot represented by pedal groove Monoplacophora - 20 species looks like half a bivalve. Thought to be extinct. Kind of sort of displays segmentation, but they don’t have molluscs with segmentations ctenidium = gills Synapomorphies of molluscs - bilateral - mantle with shell - torsion - once torsion occurs, bilateral symmetry goes away - Anus is on top of head - Torsion was never evolved out of. Torsion exists because they can fit into shell easier - dorsal visceral masses - buccal (mouth) with a radula. It has a mouth with radula (teeth) - large muscular foot - complete gut marked with regional specialization - have trocophore larvae Key features of molluscs – shell, radula, foot Shell, head, and radula varies in size Ancient, successful Cephalopods Closed circulatory system except for nautilus Octopus are quite active. Blue blood (haemocyanin) Counter current exchange (can take more oxygen out of the water) Large complex brain (8 arm brains – control the arms) + main brain Giant squid – 1 mm axons Vision – convergent evolution in the eye. Structurally similar to vertebrate eyes Chromotaphores When relaxing, they are more opaque. Two tentacles, 8 arms. Arms have suckers for squid (sometimes with a tooth in each sucker) Beaks For chewing, Chitinous > Graded for muscle attachment Echinodermata Deuterostomes, marine, skeleton-ish 5 classes: asteroidean (sea star), crinoidea (most basal), Echinoidea (urchins), ophiuroidea (brittle stars), holothuoidea (sea cucumber) Sea lily –
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