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Midterm

Biology 3484A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Bone Density, Tooth Enamel, Muscle Dysmorphia


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 3484A/B
Professor
Jennifer Mc Donald
Study Guide
Midterm

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HS 1001 – Courtney Price
Readings
Chapter 1
Wellness: New Health Goal
Wellness: optimal health and vitality, encompassing all the dimensions of well-being
Health: the overall condition of the body or mind and the presence or absence of illness or injury
determinants of health: influence the health of individuals and groups (income and social status,
education and literacy, social environments, personal health practices and coping skills, biology and
genetic endowment, gender, social support networking, employment/working conditions, physical
environments, healthy child development, health services, culture)
Risk factor: a condition that increases a person’s chances of disease or injury
nonmodifiable: age and family history
modifiable: smoking, exercising, diet
Health promotion (via Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion): a process of enabling people to increase
control over and improve their health
Dimensions of Wellness [interrelated]
1. Physical Diet, exercise, avoiding injuries
2. Emotional Optimism, trust, self-esteem
3. Intellectual Openness to ideas, capacity to question, creativity, curiosity
4. Interpersonal/
social
Communication skills, capacity for intimacy, capacity to maintain
relationships
5. Spiritual Capacity for love, compassion, forgiveness, altruism, joy
6. Environmental Abundant clean natural resources, maintaining sustainable
development, recycle when possible
7. Occupational Enjoyable work, job satisfaction, feelings of accomplishment,
opportunities to learn and grow
Financial wellness [financial security can contribute to your
peace of mind, no stress from money issues, be comfortable with

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HS 1001 – Courtney Price
Readings
your financial situation]
Past
-died from common infectious diseases: a disease than can spread from person to person; caused by
microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses
-vaccinations, antibiotics, public health measures  caused life expectancy to double since 1900s
Present
-chronic diseases: a disease that develops and continues over a long period, such as heart disease or
cancer
-people have control over developing these
-lifestyle choices: a conscious behavior that can increase or decrease a person’s risk of disease or
injury; such behaviors include eating a healthy diet, smoking, exercising
Integrated Pan-Canadian Healthy Living Strategy
-created in 2002
-Collaborative approach to curb our nations noncommunicable diseases by addressing their common,
preventable risk factors (physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, tobacco use) and the underlying conditions
in society that contribute to them (including income, employment, education, geographic isolation,
social exclusion)
-more than 30% of drunk drivers in fatal car crashes are b/w ages of 16-24
Vision: healthy nation in which all Canadians experience the conditions that support the attainment of
good health
Goals: improve overall health outcomes and reduce health disparities in a meaningful way by 2015.
Leading causes of death in Canada (in order): cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic lower
respiratory diseases, accidents, diabetes, influenza, alzheimers, suicide, kidney disease
In teens (age 15-24): accidents, suicide, cancer, homicide, heart disease
Increase:
healthy eating: 20% the proportions of Canadians who make healthy food choices
physical activity: 20% proportion who partcipate in regular physical activity (based on 30min/day to
moderate to vigerous activity)
healthy weights: increase 20% proportion of Canadians at a healthy body weight (based on BMI 18.5
– 24.9)
Health Issues for a Diverse Population
-health related differenes among individuals and groups can be biological (genetically) or determined
cultural—acquired patterns of behavior through daily interactions with our families, communities,
society.
-be careful not to:
stereotype [talking about people as groups rather than individuals]
overgeneralize [ignoring the extensive biological and cultural diversity that exists among people who
are grouped together ie. Aboriginals including a wide range of aboriginal groups]
59% of Canadians are either overweight or obese
EATING HABITS, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SMOKING LEVELS AMONG CANADIANS
Sex and Gender

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HS 1001 – Courtney Price
Readings
sex: biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women
gender: the roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers
appropriate for men and women
-shaped by experience and environment – how society responds to individuals
ex. Although men are more biologically likely than women to suffer from certain diseases (a sex issue),
men are less likely to visit their physician for regular exams (a gender issue).
 Ethnicity
-diversities result from a complex mix of genetic variations, environmental factors and health
behaviours
-some diseases concentrated in certain gene pools, result of each ethnic groups relatively distinct
history
-Aboriginals have 1.5X rate of heart disease, 3-5X rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 8-10X rate of
infection from TB
Income and Education
-poverty and low education
-low income and less education have higher rates of death from all causes, especially chronic disease
and injury, less likely to have preventative health services
Access to Appropriate Health Care
-low incomes – arranging for transportation to health care
-lack information about services and preventative care
-racial minorities have less access to better health care and receive lower quality care than whites
Local differences in the availability of high-tech health care and specialists
Problems with communication and trust
Cultural preferences relating to health care
Culture and Lifestyle
-vary in health-related behaviours (eg. diet, tobacco, alcohol use)
-influenced by heritage and tradition
-must be sensitive to traditional food preferences, cultural values, and people’s spiritual connection
Discrimination
-racism/discrimination stressful events that can cause psychological distress and increase the risk of
physical and psychological problems
-contribute to lower socioeconomic status
-bias in medical treatment
-Recent research shows better health care results when doctors ask patients detailed questions about
ethnicity
Income and Education
-far more predictors of poor health than any ethnic factor
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