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Bio2244A Final Exam Review Notes

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Biology 2244A/B
Nusha Keyghobadi

Bio2244 Final Exam ReviewChapter 2 Definitions Variable characteristic of a person or think that can be assigned a number or category Categorical Variables 1 Ordinalranked in meaningful order small medium large 2 NonOrdinalno meaningful order ex colour Quantitative Variables 1 Continuousmeasure on a continuous scale ex Weight 2 DiscretePossible values are listed ex Age Sample The set of objects that you can actually observe Sample size n number of observations in a sample Population The set of all objects you are ultimately interested inSteps in Statistical Analysis 1 Select a sample 2 Collect data from the sample 3 Organize and summarize the data 4 Draw conclusion about the population based on the sampleWhen looking at shapes of distributions we can describe 1 Modality unimodal bimodal 2 Symmetry tailsskewing bell curve 3 flatness bellshaped uniformMeasures of centre are different from Measures of dispersion may have same centre but different dispersion and vice versa lecture 4Important Notation Y of X represents the variable y or x represent individual observations mean price of textbooks in sample ymean price of textbooks in PopulationDescriptive Statistics Measures of Centrestatistics that describe a data set 1 Mean Average 2 Median Middle value 3 Mode Most common term a Efficiency An efficient stat makes use of all the information in the data set mean b Robustness A robust or resistant stat is not affected by a single very large or small variable median and modeVisualizing Mean and Median in a Histogram a Median divides the area roughly in half b Mean is the point of balance frequency of points to the right will balance frequency of points to the left c Mode is the highest point If the distribution is symmetric the mean and median fall in the middleIf the distribution is skewed mean and median are pulled towards the longer tailHowever the mean is usually pulled further it is less robust than the medianMeasures of Dispersion 1 Range Span of the data set single term Not efficient 22 Variance average difference from the mean 3 Standard Deviation Average difference from the mean 4 Coefficient of Variation Standard Deviation scaled by the mean s 100xCVy5 Interquartile Range Range of mid 50 of data IQRQQ 31IQR is resistant while the standard deviation is highly efficientOutliers data points that fall outside either the upper fence of the lower fence Outlier Q15IQR 1Outlier Q15IQR 3 Box Plots produce a fivenumber summary of minimum maximum median Q and quartiles 2Q Q 13Modified box plot has the outliers graphed as separate points s rather than part of max and min whiskersExercises 214226 228 230234 236237 240247 252253Transforming Variables Apply a mathematical function to the original variable Y to produce a new variable Y 1 Linear Transformationsadding or multiplying by a constant does not change the shape of the histogramExercises 256260Chapter 3 Simple Random Sampling pg 7274each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the samplemembers of the sample are chosen independently of each otherBasic Rules of Probability 3435 Probability a number that expresses the likelihood of an event ranges from 0 to 1 or from 0100 the rules of probability apply whenever there is an element of chance involved in a process
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