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Western University
Biology 2244A/B

Bio statistics 2244AChristina WangthFINAL EXAM REVIEW December 28 2011CHAPTER1NOTESCHAPTER11Goal of survey is to collect data from a small part of a larger group so that we can learn about the large group ie take a sample to learn about the populationDATA collected observations survey responses measurements etcSTATISTICS methods for planning experiments obtaining data organizing summarizing analyzing interpreting presenting and making conclusions based on dataPOPULATION complete collection of all elements to be studied includes all subjects to be studiedCENSUS collection of data from every member of the populationSAMPLE subcollection of members selected to represent the populationSample data must be collected in an appropriate way ie random selectionoIf not done so data may be completely uselessCHAPTER12PARAMETER measurement describing a characteristic about a populationSTATISTIC measurement describing a characteristic about a sampleQUANTITATIVE DATA consists of numbers representing countsmeasurementsoie weight length etcQUALITATIVE or categoricalattribute DATA can be separated into categories distinguished by nonnumber characteristicsoie gender colour etcDISCRETE DATA number of possible values is either finite number ie 110CONTINUOUS numerical DATA infinitely possible values that corresponds to some continuous scale without gaps jumps or interruptions ie sea levelFewer for discrete amounts and less for continuousamounts1Bio statistics 2244AChristina WangthFINAL EXAM REVIEW December 28 2011NOMINAL LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT characterized by data that consists of labels names etc CANNOT be arranged in an ordering ie high to lowoYes or no colours etc ORDINAL LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT data CAN be arranged in some order but difference between values cannot be determined or meaninglessoCourse grades ABCDF or rankingsINTERVAL LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT like ordinal and its difference between two data values is meaningless but has no natural zerooTemperature years of an event time didnt begin at zeroRATIO LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT additional property that there is a natural zero differences and values are BOTH meaningfuloWeights ages etcIts hard to distinguish interval and ratio levels use ratio test consider the word twice 40kg is twice as much as 20kg but 40K is not twice as much as 20K2Bio statistics 2244AChristina WangthFINAL EXAM REVIEW December 28 2011CHAPTER13VOLUNTARY RESPONSE SAMPLE respondents themselves decided whether or not to be includedoOften people with strong opinionsinterests are more likely to participate oResults in biased samples and cannot make conclusions about the populationOBSERVATIONAL STUDY observe and measure specific things but dont attempt to modify the subjects being studiedoie an interview questions are asked but no modifying takes placeEXPERIMENT applying some treatment and the proceed to observe its effect on subjectsoie clinical trials the drug modifies the personCROSSSECTIONAL STUDY data is observed measured and collected at one point in timeRETROSPECTIVE or casecontrol STUDY data is collected from past by going back in time oie going through interviews exam records etcPROSPECTIVE or longitudinalcohort STUDY data is collected in the future from groups sharing common factors called cohortsRetrospective vs ProspectiveoRetrospective studies go back in time to collect data ie study of disease might work backwards to determine which conditions could be linked to the diseaseoProspective studies go forward in time by following groups with a potential causative factor ie group of drivers that use cellphones and drivers that dont3
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