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Biology 2290F/G

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Biology 2290F/G—Sample exam questions and answers 1 Krajnyk Unit THIS IS NOT AN ACTUAL EXAM PAPER. THESE ARE SIMPLY SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS. 1. An experiment was conducted to determine the di stribution of Nitrogen in above-ground and below- ground plant biomass in six habitats of a sand dune system located on the south eastern shoreline of Lake Huron. Five quadrats (0.5 m  0.5 m) were randomly placed in each habitat (1 stDune Ridge North, 1 Dune Ridge Top, 1 sDune Ridge South, Slack, 2 nd Dune Ridge North, 2 ndDune Ridge South). Above-ground parts of plants were clipped at the soil level and separated into green (live) and dead biomass. Below-ground biomass was obtai ned from each quadrat by excavating the roots and rhizomes of plants and washing them. Above- and below-ground samples were dried for 6–8 hours at 60°C in a drying oven. Samples were then ground into powder and total nitrogen content (g -2 m ) was determined by thermal conductivity in a Total Nitrogen Analyzer. The collected data were analyzed using a one-way Anova and Tukey tests. The results of the experiment are presented in the table below. Table 3. Mean total nitrogen content ( SE) in above-ground and below-ground plant biomass in different habitats in a sand dune system along the south eastern shoreline of Lake Huron. Habitat Slope Total above-ground Nitrogen Total below-ground Nitrogen (g m ) (g m-) st 1 Dune Ridge North 0.20  0.08bc 0.09  0.06b Top 0.46  0.16a 0.47  0.20a South 0.33 0.14ab 0.40  0.08a Slack Slack 0.06  0.06c 0.02  0.02b 2 Dune Ridge North 0.25  0.07b 0.42  0.14a South 0.20  0.06bc 0.37  0.09a Note: Means in each column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P<0.05) according to Tukey’s test. a) What was/were the independent variable(s) in this study? (2 marks) ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ b) What do the results show about the total above-ground nitrogen content in the vegetation? (12 marks) ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ c) Which objective criterion ( P value) did the authors of this study use to accept or reject H 0 in Anova? (1 mark) ___________ 2. Define the term ‘randomization’. (2 marks) ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 2 Biology 2290F/G—Sample exam questions and answers Krajnyk Unit 3. List, in point form and sequentially, the three fundam ental aspects used by scientists in the ‘scientific method’. (3 marks) a) __________________________________________ b) __________________________________________ c) __________________________________________ 4. a) Define descriptive statistics. (2 marks) ________________________________________________________________________________ b) Provide two examples of descriptive statistics. (2 marks) i. _______________________________________ ii. _______________________________________ 5. Carefully read the following paragraph and answer the questions given below. In 2001, a study was conducted to determine the ef fect of dietary composition on blood pressure. The following ‘Methods’ were used. The effect of different levels of dietary sodum were studied in people with high systolic blood pressure. A total of 414 people were randomly assigned to either a regular diet of what people eat or a DASH diet rich in vegetables, fr uits, and low-fat dairy products. Within each of the assigned diets, three levels of NaCl, High–8.7 g per day, Intermediate–5.8 g per day, and Low–2.9 g per day were added. During the study each participant was required to maintain a constant weight. At the end of a 30 day period the systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) was measured. a) How many replications were used in this study? (1 mark) ______________________________ b) What was /were the dependent variable(s) in this study? (1 mark) _______________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ c) What was/were the independent variable(s) in this study? (3 marks) ______________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 3 Biology 2290F/G—Sample exam questions and answers Krajnyk Unit 6. Assume that you are a judge of a poster session at a scientific meeting. Look at the following Table carefully, and list in point form, (do not explain) the errors and/or omissions that have been committed by the authors in this Table presentation. (10 marks) a) ___________________________________ f) ___________________________________ b) ___________________________________ g) ___________________________________ c) ___________________________________ h) ___________________________________ d) ___________________________________ i) ___________________________________ e) ___________________________________ j) ___________________________________ Table 1. Mean plant height of Cakile Edentula at different stages of growth and at various defoliation intensities in a greenhouse. Defoliation 3 weeks 6 weeks Intensity (%) 0 37.8  1.6a 37.8  1.6a 25 34.8  0.5ab 31.1  1.6b 50 33.0  0.6b 32.3  1.7ab 75 33.1  1.4b 30.3  1.4b 100 28.3  1.1c 26.4  0.8c Note: Treatments in each column followed by different letters are not significantly different according to Anova. 7. The following experiment was designed to test the effect of burial depth (cm) on plant biomass of Ammophila breviligulata seedlings. When the seedlings were 18 cm tall, they were buried to five depths (0, 3, 6, 9, 11 cm) in sand and grown in a greenhouse. There were six replications of two seedlings per replicate for each burial depth. At the end of the experiment (75 days after burial), the plants were harvested, dried at 70°C for 48 h an d dry weight (g) was recorded. The collected data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and means were compared using Tukey’s multiple contrast test. The results of these tests are presented on Page 4. In the space below, create a Table (as it would appear in a poster) by selecting relevant information from Page 4, and indicate with letters, results of the statistical analysis. (25 marks) Table 1. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Biology 2290F/G—Sample exam questions and answers 4 Krajnyk Unit In the experiment in Question 7: a) State the H o__________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (6 marks) b) Was the null hypothesis accepted or rejected? (1 mark)________________________________ c) Explain what the control was in this experiment. (2 marks) ________________________________________________________________________________ d) What was the dependent variable? (2 marks) ________________________________________________________________________________ e) What is the difference between the Sig. value given in the Anova table and the Subset for alpha value given in the Tukey HSD table? (8 marks) __________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Descriptives Dryweight N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 0 6 1.3583 .23387 .09548 3 6 1.7683 .40809 .16660 6 6 2.0300 .51827 .21158 9 6 2.2900 .58114 .23725 11 6 3.7883 .12090 .04936 ANOVA Dryweight Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 20.661 4 5.165 30.666 .001 Within Groups 4.211 25 .168 Total 24.872 29 Dry weight a Tukey HSD Subset for alpha = .05 Burialdepth N 1 2 3 0 6 1.3583 3 6 1.7683 1.7683 6 6 2.0300 2.0300 9 6 2.2900 11 6 3.7883 Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed. a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 6.000. 5 Biology 2290F/G—Sample exam questions and answers Krajnyk Unit 8. Below are results of statistical analyses performed on data from a study that was done to determine the effect of various sea salt concentrations (%) on the leaf dry weights (g) of lacustrine and coastal varieties of Beach Pea (Lathyrus maritimus var. glaber and L. maritimus var. pellitus respectively). Descriptives N Mean Std. Deviation Lacustrine variety .00 6 2.3717 .69787 1.50 6 2.1850 .31169 3.00 6 1.6450 .27819 Coastal variety .00 6 2.7800 .27928 1.50 6 1.9500 .36376 3.00 6 1.6817 .24831 ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Lacustrine variety Between Groups 1.709 2 .854 3.875 .044 Within Groups 3.308 15 .221 Total 5.017 17 Coastal variety Between Groups 3.934 2 1.967 21.699
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