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Important Concepts In Lecture (2).docx

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Western University
Biology 2601A/B

Lecture 2: Temperature I  Temperature o Reaction rate o Enzyme affinity  Heat  Heat transfer  Endotherms  Homoetherms  Poikilotherms  Heterotherms  Regional endothermy/heterothermy  Ectotherms o o logM = log(a) + nTb o Q10 = Rt/R(t-10) o Substrate vs Reaction rate  Km = enzyme-substrate affinity  Changes in Km o Metabolic rate determined by Km o Processes governed by temperature o Thermal inertia o Temperature limits  Freezing  Mismatch of oxygen demand and delivery  Membrane fluidity  Enzyme denaturation o Evolutionary adaptation  LDH homologs Lecture 3: Temperature II Endothermy In Mammals and Birds  Ambient temperature vs. metabolic rate o Thermoneutral zone (TMZ)  Endothermic homeotherm  Producing heat o Vasoconstriction o Shivering thermogenesis o Nonshivering thermogenesis  Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT)  UCP1 o Futile cycling o Countercurrent heat exchange  Regional heterothermy o Countercurrent heat exchange at appendages Lecture 4: Temperature III Thermoregulation In Ectotherms  R +H + C + L + M = 0  Behavioral Thermoregulation in plants o Radiation from sun  absorption variability and leaf color/angle o Convection  leaf shape o Latent heat exchange  transpiration o Metabolism  futile cycling  Behavioral thermoregulation seen in Lizards o Labs vs. natural environments  Metabolic heat generation in plants o CO, CN and AZ insensitive o UCPs o AOX  Metabolic heat generation – thoracic thermoregulation = contraction of flight muscles o Moths – narrow range of thermoregulation  needs a minimum Tb to engage in this type of thermoregulation o Honeybees – wider range of thermoregulation  various contractile intensities seen  no minimum Tb needed  Engages in both heat loss and generation  Brooding young  Fish as ectotherms  Regional Endothermy in Fish = Warm – Bodied Fish o Rete mirabile o Countercurrent heat exchange o Area of Rete o Evolutionary adaptation Lecture 5: Energy I The Capacity To Do Work  Metabolism  Energy metabolism o Catabolic processes o Anabolic processes  Three laws of thermodynamics  Forms of energy o Chemical energy o Electrical energy o Mechanical energy o Heat (molecular kinetic energy)  High grade energy vs. low grade energy  Uses of acquired energy o Biosynthesis o Maintenance o Generation of external work o Consumption  Metabolic rate (cal/s or J/s or W)  Direct calorimeter  Indirect calorimeter o Respirometry o Material-balance method  Assumptions  Factors affecting metabolic rate o Physical activity (large effect) o Environmental temperature (large effect) o Ingestion body size o Age o Gender o Environmental O2 level o Hormonal status o Time of day o Salinity of water Lecture 6: Energy II Mitochondria  Mitochondrial structure o Outer membrane o Inner membrane o Intermembrane space o Cristae o Matrix o Ribosome o Granules o DNA o ATP synthase proteins o Reticulum in yeast  Glycolysis  Endosymbiotic theory o Glycolysis in ancestral prokaryote o Oxidative metabolism in aerobic heterotropic prokaryote  Citric acid cycle  Electron transport chain o Complex I* o Complex II o UQ o Complex III* o Cyt. C o Complex IV* o Complex V  Mitochondrial uncoupling o UCP1 = inducible proton leak o BAT in hibernating mammals o Inducible vs. constitutive proton leakage  Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) o Mitochondrial metabolism o Superoxide  hydrogen Peroxide  OH radical  damage to DNA, RNA and proteins  Superoxide dismutase  Fe2+ o Found in chloroplast in plants o Evolutionary adaptation o Maximum life span (> mol H2O2 production = < life span)  Uncoupling proteins some role in reducing production of ROS  Empirical data: >>mitochondrial proton leakage = << ROS produced Lecture 7: Energy III Photosynthesis  Autotrophs  Heterotrophs  Photosynthesis - chloroplast  Light dependent reactions – thylakoid membranes o Photosystem  Light harvesting complex = pigment molecules (chl)  Reaction center (chl-a)  Absorption spectrum o Photosystem I and Photosystem II components  H2O
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