Why is glyphosate a 'safer' herbicide to use for controlling Phragmites?
Glyphosate has a higher animal LD50 value, which indicates low toxicity levels for
wildlife. It also is absorbed quickly which means that exposure isn't for very long. This
herbicide will work on broad leaf species and grasses.
What are the three main ways that matter is transported between landscape
elements? Give an example of each
The three main ways matter is transported between landscapes are through: airflows,
water, and humans.
1) Transport by airflows is most prominent on continent edges where winds are
strongest.Airflows can move large quantities over long distances and examples of
matter transported this way are sulfur and nitrogen.
2) Water transport can either be through surface and ground water, such as
3) Humans are another way of transporting matter and it is usually done purposely.
For example the diversion of water from Aral Sea for agricultural use.
Which of the following are pollination syndromes?
1) Flower color
3) Scent linked to a pollinator
4) All of the above
Which of the following is a form of interference competition among plants using
This proposed method of ecological restoration involved introducing old-world
species as top predators to Canada
1) Paleontological remodeling
2) Old world mega-fauna remodeling
3) Pleistocene re-wilding
4) Proxy species re-wilding
Ways to regulate/remove invasive species?
1) Controlled burns
2) Round up application
3) Mowing the area
Difference between wilderness,Arcadian, production, mixture, and over-
1) Wilderness refers to natural (or near natural) landscapes. Nature regulates itself
with no human interference. 2) Arcadian refers to semi-natural landscapes. Human significantly play an active
role in these areas.
3) Production refers to intensively managed rural landscapes. Human use almost all
parts of "nature" here. Example: farming.
4) Mixture refers to landscapes with a mixture of natural areas,Arcadian areas, and
5) Over-exploitation is areas of very little natural habitat and therefore cannot be
considered nature. Example: mining activity --> ruins landscape and makes it
List three factors that influence restoration ecology and give an example of each
1) Economics - Funding (or lack thereof) from the government or companies
2) Social - Community involvement in areas that don’t require professionals
3) Environmental - Pollution prevention
What were the two types of invasive species in the stream area and how was each
1) Phragmites - treatment with glycophosphates
2) Daylily - physically extracted from ground
What method was proposed for the safeguarding of turtle eggs in wetland 14?
2) Broken down trees
3) Turtle islands
What are some benefits from using pits and mounds?
1) Increased carbon sequestration in the soil
2) Increased regional cooling due to evapotranspiration
3) High habitat value for amphibians
What is the difference between Restoration Ecology and Ecological Restoration?
1) Restoration Ecology is the fundamental knowledge and science that a restoration
should be based off of.
2) Ecological Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem.
What is the difference between Ecological Restoration, Rehabilitation, and
1) Restoration: return to a pre-disturbed reference
2) Rehabilitation: improve ecosystem functions
3) Reclamation: clean up of heavily degraded areas
What is a Disturbance?And what are the 4 different characteristics of one?
Adisturbance is an external event that an ecosystem is not capable of responding to and
will push it from a steady state.
1. Kind: biotic or abiotic
2. Degree: how destructive 3. Frequency: how often
4. Scale: spatial and temporal
What is the difference between Resistance and Resilience?
1. Resilience: the ability of a system to return to a stable state after a disturbance.
Resilient systems return fast.
2. Resistance: the ability of a system to resist change from a disturbance. Systems
with high resistance show little response to disturbances.
What are the 3 general targets for a restoration? Provide an example of each.
1. Species: i.e. keystone species
2. Ecological Functions: i.e. material and energy flow
3. Ecological Services: i.e. water filtration
Briefly describe the 'moving target syndrome' of reference ecosystems.
Moving target syndrome: ecosystems have constantly changed throughout the past and
will in the present and future. Regardless of the current state all ecosystems will change
with time. This factor has to be taken into account when picking a reference system in a
target restoration to avoid potential problems.
List one pro and one con of Corridors.
1. Pro: provides connectivity for the flow of organisms, energy, and matter
2. Con: can facilitate the dispersal/transfer of parasites and disease
List and briefly define the 4 types of landscape alterations.
1. Intact: virtually untouched ecosystems
2. Variegated: semi-natural
3. Fragmented: large continuous habitat is broken up into small dispersed patches
4. Relictual: intensive land transformation
List 2 traits linked to invasiveness.
1. Wide habitat range
2. High dispersal rates
Generally what is the end result in the following interactions between two species?
Competition, allelopathy, parasitism, facilitation and mutualism. (Species A, Species
Competition ( - , - )
Allelopathy ( 0 , - )
Parasitism ( + , - )