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Western University
Biology 3222F/G

Why is glyphosate a 'safer' herbicide to use for controlling Phragmites? Glyphosate has a higher animal LD50 value, which indicates low toxicity levels for wildlife. It also is absorbed quickly which means that exposure isn't for very long. This herbicide will work on broad leaf species and grasses. What are the three main ways that matter is transported between landscape elements? Give an example of each The three main ways matter is transported between landscapes are through: airflows, water, and humans. 1) Transport by airflows is most prominent on continent edges where winds are strongest.Airflows can move large quantities over long distances and examples of matter transported this way are sulfur and nitrogen. 2) Water transport can either be through surface and ground water, such as watersheds. 3) Humans are another way of transporting matter and it is usually done purposely. For example the diversion of water from Aral Sea for agricultural use. Which of the following are pollination syndromes? 1) Flower color 2) Shape 3) Scent linked to a pollinator 4) All of the above Which of the following is a form of interference competition among plants using chemicals? 1) Parasitism 2) Allelopathy 3) Facilitation 4) Competition This proposed method of ecological restoration involved introducing old-world species as top predators to Canada 1) Paleontological remodeling 2) Old world mega-fauna remodeling 3) Pleistocene re-wilding 4) Proxy species re-wilding Ways to regulate/remove invasive species? 1) Controlled burns 2) Round up application 3) Mowing the area Difference between wilderness,Arcadian, production, mixture, and over- exploitation 1) Wilderness refers to natural (or near natural) landscapes. Nature regulates itself with no human interference. 2) Arcadian refers to semi-natural landscapes. Human significantly play an active role in these areas. 3) Production refers to intensively managed rural landscapes. Human use almost all parts of "nature" here. Example: farming. 4) Mixture refers to landscapes with a mixture of natural areas,Arcadian areas, and production areas. 5) Over-exploitation is areas of very little natural habitat and therefore cannot be considered nature. Example: mining activity --> ruins landscape and makes it useless. List three factors that influence restoration ecology and give an example of each 1) Economics - Funding (or lack thereof) from the government or companies 2) Social - Community involvement in areas that don’t require professionals 3) Environmental - Pollution prevention What were the two types of invasive species in the stream area and how was each removed? 1) Phragmites - treatment with glycophosphates 2) Daylily - physically extracted from ground What method was proposed for the safeguarding of turtle eggs in wetland 14? 1) Aroad 2) Broken down trees 3) Turtle islands 4) Lilly-pads What are some benefits from using pits and mounds? 1) Increased carbon sequestration in the soil 2) Increased regional cooling due to evapotranspiration 3) High habitat value for amphibians What is the difference between Restoration Ecology and Ecological Restoration? 1) Restoration Ecology is the fundamental knowledge and science that a restoration should be based off of. 2) Ecological Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem. What is the difference between Ecological Restoration, Rehabilitation, and Reclamation? 1) Restoration: return to a pre-disturbed reference 2) Rehabilitation: improve ecosystem functions 3) Reclamation: clean up of heavily degraded areas What is a Disturbance?And what are the 4 different characteristics of one? Adisturbance is an external event that an ecosystem is not capable of responding to and will push it from a steady state. 1. Kind: biotic or abiotic 2. Degree: how destructive 3. Frequency: how often 4. Scale: spatial and temporal What is the difference between Resistance and Resilience? 1. Resilience: the ability of a system to return to a stable state after a disturbance. Resilient systems return fast. 2. Resistance: the ability of a system to resist change from a disturbance. Systems with high resistance show little response to disturbances. What are the 3 general targets for a restoration? Provide an example of each. 1. Species: i.e. keystone species 2. Ecological Functions: i.e. material and energy flow 3. Ecological Services: i.e. water filtration Briefly describe the 'moving target syndrome' of reference ecosystems. Moving target syndrome: ecosystems have constantly changed throughout the past and will in the present and future. Regardless of the current state all ecosystems will change with time. This factor has to be taken into account when picking a reference system in a target restoration to avoid potential problems. List one pro and one con of Corridors. 1. Pro: provides connectivity for the flow of organisms, energy, and matter 2. Con: can facilitate the dispersal/transfer of parasites and disease List and briefly define the 4 types of landscape alterations. 1. Intact: virtually untouched ecosystems 2. Variegated: semi-natural 3. Fragmented: large continuous habitat is broken up into small dispersed patches 4. Relictual: intensive land transformation List 2 traits linked to invasiveness. 1. Wide habitat range 2. High dispersal rates Generally what is the end result in the following interactions between two species? Competition, allelopathy, parasitism, facilitation and mutualism. (Species A, Species B) Competition ( - , - ) Allelopathy ( 0 , - ) Parasitism ( + , - ) Facilitati
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