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Business Administration
Business Administration 3301K
Alex Mc Dougall

Chapter 8: Social Influence, Socialization and Organizational Culture Social Influence in Organizations • In social settings people are highly dependence on others setting the stage for influence to occur Information Dependence and Effect Dependence • Information Dependence: reliance on others (via the signals they send us) for information about how to think, feel and act • Social information processing theory: Information from others is used to interpretevents and develop expectations about appropriate and acceptable attitudes and behaviours • Individuals are often motivated to compare their thoughts, feelings, and actions with those of others as a means of acquiring infer >n about tit their adequacy • Effect dependence: reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishments o Involves 2 complementary processes o First, the group frequently has a vested interest in how individual members think and act because such matters can aft affect the goal attainment of the group o Second, the members frequently desire the approval of the group The Social Influence Process and Conformity • One of the most obvious consequences of information and effect dependence is the tendency for group members to conform to the social norms that have been established by the group • 3 motives for social conformity • Compliance: Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment o Primarily involves effect dependence o Although the complying individual adjusts his or her behaviour to the norm, he or she does not really subscribe to the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm • Identification: Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself o Information dependence is important – if someone is similar to you, then you will be motivated to rely on that person for information about how to think and act • Internalization: Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm o Conformity occurs because it is seen as right, not because it achieves rewards, avoids punishment, or pleases others o Due to internal rather then external forces Organizational Socialization • Socialization: The process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a groupor organization o The primary means by which organizations communicate their culture and values to new members • Different socialization methods (e.g. employee orientation programs) influence a number of immediate or proximal socialization outcomes, such as learning, which lead to more distal or longer-term outcomes, such as attitudes (e.g. job satisfaction) and behaviours (e.g. turnover) • Learning during socialization has often been described in terms of content areas or domains of learning, such as the task, role, group, and organization domain • Newcomers need to learn the skills to perform their tasks, the appropriate behaviours and expectations of their roles, the norms and values of their work group, and about the organization (history, culture) o This helps them master their tasks reducing role ambiguity and role conflict • Newcomers need to achieve a good fit; there are 2 kinds of fit important for socialization o Person-job fit: the match between an employees knowledge, skills and abilities and the requirements of the job o Person-organization fit: the match between an employees personal values and the values of the organization • Organizational Identification: the extent to which individuals define themselves in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent o Reflects a persons learning & acceptance of an organizations culture • Socialization has a direct effect on proximal socialization outcomes (e.g. learning PJ fit and PO fit) which lead to more positive distal outcomes (e.g. organizational identification) • Socialization is most potent during certain periods of membership transition, such as when one is promoted or assigned to a new work group or department, and especially when one joins a new organization Stages of Socialization (3 stages) • One of these stages occurs before entry, another immediately follows entry, and the last occurs after one has been a member for some period of time • The first two represent hurdles for achieving passage into the third stage Anticipatory Socialization • Before a person becomes a member of a particular organization • Some anticipatory socialization includes a formal process of skill and attitude acquisition, such as that which might occur by attending college or university • Some organizations begin to socialize job candidates even before they are hired at recruitment events, where organizational representatives discuss the organization with potential hires Encounter • The new recruit, armed with some expectations about organizational life, encounters the day-to-day reality of this life • Formal aspects of this stage might include orientation programs and rotation through various parts of the organization • Informal aspects include getting to know and understand the style and personality of one’s boss and co-workers • At this stage, the organization and its experienced members are looking for an acceptable degree of conformity to organizational norms and the gradual acquisition of appropriate role behaviour • Recruits, on the other hand, are interested in having their personal needs and expectations fulfilled • If successful, the recruit will have complied with critical organizational norms and should begin to identify with experienced organizational members Role Management • Having survived the encounter stage and acquired basic role behaviours, the new member’s attention shifts to fine tuning and actively managing his or her role in the organization • Following some conformity to group norms, the new recruit might now be in a position to modify the role to better serve the organization • This might require forming connections outside the immediate workgroup • The organizational member must also confront balancing the now-familiar organizational role with non-work roles and family demands Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract Unrealistic Expectations • People coming into businesses have unrealistically high expectations; this gives them a reality shock when they enter the firm and their expectations are not met • Newcomerswho lave higher met expectations have higher job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and job survival and lower intentions to leave • People have unrealistic expectations because of occupational stereotypes given from the media (e.g. a person entering nursing program might look to greys anatomy at what her job will be like) • Unrealistic expectations may also stem from overzealous recruiters who paint rosy pictures to attract job candidates to the organization. Psychological Contract • Psychological contract: beliefs held by employed regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization • Psychological contract breach: employee perceptions that his or her j organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its Promises or obligations in the psychological contract • A review of research on the impact of psychological contract breach found that breach is related to affective reactions (higher feelings of contract violation and mistrust toward management), work attitudes (lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and higher turnover intentions), and work behaviours (lower organizational citizenship behaviour and job performance) • These effects are due to the formation of negative emotions that stem from feelings of violation and mistrust toward management • Employee perceptions of psychological contract breach have also been found to be associated with a decrease in innovation-related behaviours (e.g., coming up with new ideas) and lower customer satisfaction, both of which can have negative consequences for organizations • This happens because… o Recruiters promise more then they can provide o Newcomers lack information to form accurate perceptions o Organizational changes (downsizing) can cause organizations to knowingly break promises made to an employee that they are unable or unwilling to keep • Organizations must ensure truthful and accurate information about promises and obligations is communicated to new members before and after they join the organization • Intense socialization = less likely to have incongruence and psychological contract breach Methods of Organizational Socialization • Organizations that handle their own socialization are especially interested in maintaining the continuity and stability of job behaviours over a period of time • Those that rely on external agencies to perform anticipatory socialization are oriented toward maintaining the potential for creative, innovative behaviour on the part of members—less inbreeding Realistic Job Previews • Costly turnover is most likely to occur among newer employees who are unable to survive the discrepancy between expectations and reality Traditional Procedure • Set initial job expectations too high  job is typically viewed as attractive  high rate of job offer acceptance  work experience disconfirms expectations  dissatisfaction and realization that job not matched to needs  low job survival, dissatisfaction, frequent thoughts of quitting Realistic Job Preview Procedures • The provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants • Set job expectations realistically  job may not be attractive, depending on individual needs  some accept, some reject job offer  work experience confirms expectations  satisfaction; needs matched to job  high job survival, satisfaction, infrequent thoughts of quitting • Evidence shows that realistic job previews are effective in reducing inflated expectations and turnover and improving job performance • Realistic previews cause those not cut out for the job who have low Person Job fit and Person Organization fit perceptions to withdraw from the application process, a process known as self-selection • Realistic job previews are perceived by job applicants as more honest and trustworthy and this encourages employees to remain with the organization once they are hired • Providing realistic job previews is a low-investment strategy that can reduce turnover and also help prevent perceptions of psychological contract breach Employee Orientation Programs • Programs designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they will be working with, and the organization • The main content of most orientation programs consists of health and safety issues, terms and conditions of employment, and information about the organization, such as its history and traditions • Realistic Orientation Program for Entry Stress: An orientation program that is designed to teach newcomers coping techniques to manage workplace stressors • Take place during first week of entry • Orientation programs are an important method of socialization because they can have an immediate effect on learning and a lasting effect on the job attitudesand behaviours of new hires • Newly hired employees showed higher organizational commitment compared to employees without the orientation program • A study conducted at Corning Inc. concluded that employees who completed a full orientation program were 69 percent more likely to remain with the company after three years Socialization Tactics • The manner in which organizations structure the» early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another • Socialization tactics can’t end after the first week of new hires; it can last for months even the whole first year • 6 Socialization tactics that organizations can use to structure the early work experiences of new hires and individuals who are in transition from one role to another • READ PAGE 272-273 EXHIBIT 8.4 & 8.5 • Institutionalized socialization consists of collective, formal, sequential, fixed, serial, and investiture tactics • Individualized socialization consists of individual, informal, random, variable, disjunctive, and divestiture tactics • The main difference between these two approaches to socialization is that institutionalized socialization involves a more formalized and structured program of socialization that reduces uncertainty and encourages new hires to accept organizational norms and maintain the status quo • Individualized socialization reflects a relative absence of structure that creates ambiguity and encourages new hires to question the status quo and develop their own approach to their role • In addition, the tactics have also been distinguished in terms of the context in which information is presented to new hires, the content provided to new hires, and the social aspects of socialization • Institutionalized socialization tactics are effective in promoting organizational loyalty and uniformity of behaviour among those being socialized • When socialization is individualized, new members are more likely to take on the particular characteristics and style of those who are socializing them • Institutionalized socialization tactics have been found to be related to proximal outcomes, such as lower role ambiguity and conflict and more positive perceptions of PJ and PO fit, as well as distal outcomes, such as more positive job satisfaction and organizational commitment and lower stress and turnover • The institutionalized socialization tactics result in a more custodial role orientation, in which new hires accept the status quo and the requirements of their tasks and roles • The individualized socialization tactics result in a more innovative role orientation, in which new recruits might change or modify the way they perform their tasks and roles • It is also worth noting that among the different socialization tactics, the social tactics (serial-disjunctive and investiture- divestiture) have been found to be the most strongly related to socialization outcomes Mentoring • Mentor: An experienced or more senior personin the organization who gives a junior person guidance and special attention, such as giving advice and creating opportunities to assist him or her during the early stages of his or her career • For mentors to be effective they must perform two types of developmental functions: career and psychosocial functions Career Functions of Mentoring • A mentor provides career enhancing benefits to an apprentice; this is made possible by the senior person’s experience, status, knowledge of how the organization works, and influence with powerful people in the organization • The career functions of mentoring include: • Sponsorship: The mentor might nominate the apprentice for advantageous transfers and promotions. • Exposure and visibility: The mentor might provide opportunities to work with key people and see other parts of the organization. • Caching and feedback: The mentor might suggest work strategies and identify strengths and weaknesses in the apprentice’s performance. • Developmental assignments: The mentor can provide challenging work assignments that will help develop key skills and knowledge that are crucial to career progress. Psychosocial Functions Of Mentoring • Mentors can provide certain psychosocial functions that are helpful in developing the apprentice’s self-confidence, sense of identity, and ability to cope with emotional traumas that can damage a person’s effectiveness • Role modeling: This provides a set of attitudes, values, and behaviours for the junior person to imitate. • Providing acceptance and confirmation: This provides encouragement and support and helps the apprentice gain self- confidence. • Counseling: This provides an opportunity to discuss personal concerns and anxieties concerning career prospects, work- family conflicts, and so on. • Mentoring relationships have often been of an informal nature, in that the individuals involved chose to enter into a mentoring relationship with each other without the direct involvement of their organization • Formal mentoring programs: Organizationally sponsored Programs in which seasoned employees are recruited as mentors and matched with protégés Woman and Mentoring • Woman have difficulty establishing an apprentice-mentor relationship with a senior person in an organization • It stems from the fact that the senior people who are in the best position to be mentors are frequently men, and men are also more likely to serve as mentors than are women • Often, a woman’s concerns are different from those her male mentor experienced at that stage in his career • The greatest difficulty is associated with fears that their relationship will be perceived as involving intimacy • Research has confirmed that cross-gender mentor-apprentice dyads are less likely to get involved in informal after-work social activities, and that apprentices in a cross-gender dyad are less likely to see their mentor as a role model and, therefore, are less likely to realize the developmental benefits of an effective model • Mentoring is even more critical to women’s career success than it is to men’s Race, Ethnicity and Mentoring • Research shows that mentors tend to select apprentices who are similar to them in terms of race and nationality as well as gender • Cross-race mentoring relationships seem to focus on instrumental or career functions of mentoring (e.g., sponsorship, coaching, and feedback) and provide less psychosocial support functions (e.g., role modeling and counseling) than is generally seen in same-race dyads • Minority group members should put extra efforts into developing a supportive network of peers who can provide emotional support and role modeling as well as the career functions Research Evidence • Mentored individuals had higher objective career outcomes, such as compensation and number of promotions, and higher subjective outcomes, including greater satisfaction with one’s job and career and greater career commitment. • In comparisons of the effects of the two mentoring functions, the psychosocial function was found to be more strongly related to satisfaction with the mentoring relationship, while the career function was more strongly related to compensation and advancement • Research on formal mentoring programs has found that they are just as beneficial informal mentoring relationships and are certainly more beneficial than not having mentors at all • Developmental networks: Groups of people who take an active interest in and actions toward advancing a protégé’s career by providing developmental assistance • Thus, unlike a traditional mentoring relationship that involves one protégé and one mentor, in a developmental network a protégé can have multiple developers from inside and outside (e.g., family and community) of the organization and include people from different hierarchical levels of the organization (e.g., peers, superiors, subordinates, and senior managers). • With a developmental network, a newcomer is more likely to obtain different types of support (e.g., career and psychosocial) and a broader range of career outcomes Proactive Socialization • The process through which newcomers play an active role in their own socialization through the useof a number of proactive socialization behaviours • Two of the most important proactive behaviours are to request feedback about one’s work and job performance (feedback seeking) and to seek information about one’s work tasks, roles, work group, and organization (information seeking) • Newcomers can acquire information by requesting it, by asking questions, and by observing the behaviour of others • Newcomers rely primarily on observation followed by interpersonal sources; they tend to seek out task-related information the most, especially during the early period of socialization, followed by role, group, and organization information • Newcomers can also be proactive by participating in social events (general socializing), developing friendships and relationships with co-workers (relationship building), developing a friendship and relationship with one’s boss (boss- relationship building), getting to know people outside of one’s department or work area (networking), and attempting to change or modify one’s tasks to improve PJ fit (job change negotiation) • Newcomers who are more proactive obtain more feedback and information, and develop more friendships and relationships, which results in more positive proximal and distal socialization outcomes Organizational Culture What is Organizational Culture? • The shared beliefs, values, and assumptions that exist in an organization • These shared beliefs, values, and assumptions determine the norms that develop and the patterns of behaviour that emerge from the norms • Culture represents a true “way of life” for organizational members • Culture is fairly stable overtime once it is well established • Culture can involve matters that are internal or external to the organization o Internally, a culture might support innovation, risk taking, or secrecy of information o Externally, a culture might support putting the customer first or behaving unethically toward its competitors • Culture can have a strong impact on both organizational performance and member satisfaction • An organization can have many cultures • Subcultures: smaller cultures that develop within a larger organizational culture that are based on differences training, occupation, or departmental goals The Strong Culture Concept • Strong culture: an organizational culture with inte
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