Nov 12: Classical Art and Drama:
Tragedy – goat song, an Athenian invention. Performed at the annual spring Festival of
the god Dionysus. All our extant plays were written in the period following the Persian
Wars and before the end of Peloponnesian War. Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides
have plays that remain. Archons chose the playwrights and the wealthiest citizens were
chosen from to make up the choregoi, a chorus. Periclean theatre of the 440s at Athens
held about 14,000 spectators seated upon benches of wood, rising in tiers in a vast
semicircle up the side of the Acropolis. In Greek theatre, nuance of gesture and effect
would have been quite pointless, nor could the relation between player and audience have
been intimate. Large focus on projecting their voices. All plays consist of a number of
episodes or scenes involving the principal characters, written in iambics, divided by
choral interludes called stasima, written in a variety of metrical forms. More commonly,
the chorus is detached from the main actions involving the main actions involving the
heroic figures of myth, but in comment and response is fully integrated into the emotional
and thematic pattern of the play as a whole. Concentration of effect and a concern for
unity of design are principles endemic in Greek art from Homer onwards. In drama,
simplicity and economy were further encouraged by limitations of time and form outside
the playwright‟s control. Playwright is a priest of the muses. Theatre is connected with
festival production and by the physical conditions of the theatre.
As the Athenian state transformed into a democracy, Tragedies were created.
Aeschylus (playwright) – no individual Greek is named, triumph of Greece in the Persian
Lots of emotion, Persians are humanized.
Orestes – story of the usurping of Agememnon‟s throne and its retrieval by Orestes, his
son. Aeschylus presents is differently from Homer. The good that prevails after all the
individual suffering is the communal good, the establishment of Athenian justice
sanctioned by gods.
Antigone, probably written in the 440s, is one of the three surviving plays, written at
different periods, featuring members of the house of Oedipus, often printed together and
given the title The Theban Plays. The legend or story of Oedipus is full of absurdities that
are concealed or disguised by a Sophoclean sleight of hand in the plotting of the play.
The actions of Oedipus in the play, which are all freely entered into, dramatize not
merely the terrible insecurity of human happiness, but a hopeless human struggle against
an inscrutable fate.
Euripedes, his earliest surviving play, is Medea of 431. Represents Medea
sympathetically, for a Greek woman with social plights. Euripides has been criticized for
making his characters indulge in clever talk or sophistry. In making Medea pronounce so
consciously upon her own wrong-doing it has been suggested that Euripides had in mind the Socratic doctrine that wrongdoing results from a faulty perception of the good, that
virtue is knowledge and that „no one willingly does wrong‟. Euripides‟s gods are merely
machines for tying up loose ends of the plot.
Old Comedy: Aristophanes
The only surviving comedies of the fifth century representing what was subsequently
called by the ancients the Old Comedy are nine plays by Aristophanes.
- satirical character and the ridiculing incentive against named individuals such as
politicians, philosophers etc.
- persistent and frank indecency with regard to sexual matters and bodily functions
- Aristophanes last two plays differ in that the parabasis is abandoned and plays are
less overtly political.
- Depends on the clever manipulation of the stereotypical. Does not challenge the
audience but confirms the norms of a bourgeois world.
Classical developments in the 5 Century
- the stiffness and rigid symmetries of the archaic style have been replaced in the
new pose, in which the weight is shifted on to the back leg with the hips raised
accordingly. Although the arms are incomplete, the presence of small joints on the
body makes it clear that they were fixed to the thighs as before, but the left upper
arm is bent backwards slightly, suggesting that the arm was bent at the elbow,
while the right arm drops vertically.
- Legs and arms are asymmetrically balanced
- Slight turn of head for softness
- Recessed eyes more lifelike
- Shortening of hair
Red Figure innovation in pottery
- painted black over red clay – engraving tools to create detailed lines
- SWITCHED to creating the outline of the figures, painting background black
- Vase painters created scenes in which figures were not all placed on the same
- Foreshortening becomes commonplace
High Classicism: the architecture of the Parthenon
- a symbol of Athenian greatness and the spirit that distinguished the Athenian
from the Spartan, a symbol of the Athenian cultivation of the Greek feeling for
beauty that the Spartans had repressed.
- More than a sybol it is a real cultural emblem, the marble embodiment of the
classical spirit - Parthenon was begun in 447, to be finally completed fifteen years later. Political
reasons – the grand vision of Pericles was designed to express and enhance the
growing confidence and self-awareness of the Athenian polis.
- Roots of classical architecture go back to the ancient Egyptian, Minoan, and
- Two types: Doric and Ionic. Doric is more severe and grand; Ionic has taller and
thinner columns and its great decoration is more graceful.
- Parthenon is regarded as the perfection of the Doric order.
- Parthenon columns not only taper but curve slightly inward. Softens the stark
angularity of the basic geometric structure and give the temple a more natural
relation to the ground on which it is built.
- Decoration is not allowed to interrupt the dominant lines of the structure as a
- Sculptural decorations, according to Doric is confined to the triangular pediments
at either end, the inner frieze and the metopes.
Sculptures of high classicism: Polyclitus; the sculptures of the Parthenon
- Polyclitus‟s doryphoros (spear-bearer) is mid step, left hand carries the spear so
left shoulder is slightly raised.
- Line of the shoulders is no longer horizontal.
- The turn of his head completes the S like shape and for pleasing views from the
sides, so that the figure is more fully rounded.
- Pheidias was regarded as the best sculptor – nothing survived.
- The use of drapery to enhance form and to suggest movement in a 3D
composition is one of many techniques perfected in the classical period.
- no originals survived – pieced together from writings
- Aristotle says that art imitates nature, and art carries things further than nature.
- Lyre girl – everything positioned accordingly, lines important
- Beauty of painting stems from its fluidity and refinement.
- The Grecian attitude is clearly ideal but the style of the pose is not exaggerated to
the point where it becomes affected or mannered.
Nov 19: Peloponnesian War; Socrates, Plato & Aristotle
- Dispute between Athens and Corinth in 404 over Corcyra, a colony of Corinth
which sought to make an alliance with Athens contrary to the interests of Corinth,
which appealed to Sparta to intervene.
- Pericles‟ strategy to avoid a pitched battle with superior Spartan forces meant they
retreated behind the walls by which the city and the harbour were both connected
and defended. Athens had naval superiority, could still get food, and blockade the Peloponnese, interfering with food imports and sowing dissension among the
allies of Sparta.
- When Spartans invaded Attica, the citizens retreated into the city.
- Athenian point of view – good engagement was the occupation of Pylos in
Messenia, where a number of Spartiates were taken prisoner and shipped back to
Athens. Might have been expected that the Athenians could forment a rebellion of
the Messenian Helots.
- Sparta sued for peace, but Pericles‟s successors urged to continue.
- Sparta made a successful attempt in the North in the Thracian Chalcidice, where
they captured Amphipolis, an important source of raw materials and a promising
base for further interference in the region.
- Peace was agreed in 421 when both sides more or less gave up their gains.
- Peace did not suit them, and at the instigation of the Alcibiades, who dominated
the assembly, exploited discontent by making alliances with Peloponnesian states
in dispute with Sparta.
- Sparta reasserted dominance at the battle of Mantinea in 418. Athens subjugated
the island of Melos, one of the few states in the Aegean not subject to her, putting
death to all men of military age and selling the women and children into slavery.
- Sicily was in a war, asked Athens for help, and the Alcibiades said yes against
- Alcibiades was recalled to Athens to answer charges of sacrilegious behaviour,
whereupon he fled to Sparta and proceeded to help the,
- The fleet, despite being heavily reinforced was defeated.
- This was the decisive event of the war, which weakened Athenian power, with the
loss of a huge fleet and perhaps over 40,000 men. Athens never truly recovered.
- Spartans established a permanent base at Decelea in Attica, restricting Athenian
movement by land.
- A number of states capitalized on the weakness and revolted against Athens,
while Sparta befan to equip herself with a new fleet for war in the Aegean.
- Athens involved Persia in the war by supporting the revolt of Amroges in Caria
against Persian rule. Persia gave financial support to Sparta
- Athens was running out of funds and their supplies of corn from the Bosporus
were threatened by the new Peloponnesian fleet.
- Alcibiades was in Persia, contacted the Athenian fleet promising to arrange for
Persia to change sides if the Athenian leaders in return overthrew the democratic
- Oligarchic revolution took place in 411, establishing a government by a body of
400. The oligarchs did not bring peace with Sparta and the constitution was
modified to a more moderate oligarchy, giving rights to 5,000 or so most wealthy
citizens. In 410 radical democracy was restored.
- Alcibiades had been recalled, with a new fleet he secured the corn supplies,
restoring Athenian power in much of the Aegean. At the battle of Arginusae in
406 the Athenians defeated the Spartan fleet, but lost many ships and men in a
subsequent storm. - All the victorious generals were tried and executed on their return to Athens. An
offer of peace was also spurned. The much-reduced Athenian fleet was finally
defeated at the battle of Aegospotami in the Hellespont.
- With no fleet to protect her and besieged by land, Athens capitulated in 404.
Sparta required her to dismantle her long walls and the fortifications of the
Piraeus, to maintain a fleet of no more than twelve ships and to recall citizens
exiled when the earlier oligarchy had been overthrown.
- An oligarchic coup with Spartan support followed. A board of 30 took over,
leading democrats who escaped to Thebes came back and fought the Thirty,
killing a number of them. Spartans did not oppose the gradual restoration of
Socrates(469-399) and the Sophists
- Socrates did not write anything – know him through Xenophon‟s Memoirs of
Socrates and Plato‟s writings where he is the chief speaker (all written after his
death in 399)
- Platonism, although expressed through the Platonic Socrates, is an extension by
Plato of tendencies in Socrates‟s thought.
- Socrates was wise because he admitted his own ignorance. Set out to show other
men theirs. His favourite method was cross-questioning; for this he pretended to
be ignorant in order to draw out and refute an opponent. Socratic Irony.
- Plato makes Socrates compare himself to a midwife – cannot have good thoughts
himself, but can help raise up others.
- Virtue (arete, excellence) is knowledge.
- Wrong actions are a result of a faulty perception of what conduces to true human
- Sophists – travelled from city to city giving lessons in such things as mathematics,
politics and the art of public speaking, designed for being useful for the rising
- Protagoras – man is the measure of all things
- Difference between the practical aim of Protagoras for worldly success and the
divine mission of Socrates.
- Socrates was trialed for corrupting the youth, going against the gods believed, and
disagreeing with democracy favouring a government of the educated.
- Socrates was completely in control. Good drinker – never drunk. Self-restrained.
- Was born of aristocratic parents in around 427 in Athens.
- After Socrates died, he turned away from politics and travelled.
- Began teaching at The Academy – hope for Philosopher Kings?
- Seemingly did not release all his thoughts to paper –dumbed down for the masses.
- In the Symposium – uses the contrasting example of the sophist to throw the
superior qualities of Socrates‟ mind, motive, and method into clear relief. - Form of beauty itself is important to seek – Allegory of the Cave
- Enlightenment is a slow and painful process that is naturally and powerfully
resisted by the ignorant and blind.
- Ideal state: Guardians – philosophic rulers who cannot own property or handle
money. Auxiliaries – carry out orders of guardians. Third class –workers, farmer
or businessmen. All women in common and children are brought up by the state.
Best men mate with best women. Embody the four cardinal virtues of wisdom,
courage, temperance and justice. Wisdom in guardians, courage in auxiliaries,
temperance in the harmonious acceptance of the order of the state by all classes,
and justice is the principle that makes this temperance possible – each class
fulfills its function without impeding on those of the others.
- Reflects nature of the soul – three parts – Rational, Spirited and Appetitive.
- Plato disliked poetry.
- Not rational. Often lies, especially dealing with gods and myths.
- 384 – Father was a court physician to the Macedonian king
- Studied at the Athenian Academy of Plato
- After Plato‟s death, tutored Philip‟s son Alexander.
- Opened a school to rival the Academy.
- Is less theoretical and mathematical than Plato, extending the range of hi
philosophical enquiries to the physical and particularly to the biological.
- Aristotle disagrees with Plato‟s idea of the state, dislikes the dissolution of the
family and the lack of provisions for the third class.
- Believes body and soul are one.
- Does not believe moral virtues are implanted in us by Nature, but through habit
- Man is a social animal.
- The point of the state is to ensure the good life for its citizens.
November 26: The Crisis of the Polis, Historians, Rise of Macedon
Spartan Hegemony and the Second Athenian League:
- Sparta had inherited the Athenian empire and was the undisputed leader of the
- “freed” the Athenian states by establishing oligarchic governments of ten men
supported by a military presence in a number of key states.
- Sparta lost the support of Persia after supporting the unsuccessful revolt of Cyrus.
- At Cyrus‟ instigation, the Greek cities of Asia Minor had revolted against Persian
control and received Greek garrisons.
- Under threat, the Asiatic Greeks appealed to Sparta for protection, so that Sparta
became embroiled in a war with Persia.
- She took the war into the interior of Asia Minor, but lost her fleet in a naval
engagement with the Persians and the Athenian mercenary Conon in 394. - The Persians proceeded to expel all Spartan garrisons from the Aegean, then,
persuaded by Conon, helped the Athenian to rebuild their walls.
- In 389, Athenians began to make connections with old imperial alliances, but
Sparta showed Persia this was not advantageous to them, and the Persian king
turned against his Greek allies.
- In 387/6, Sparta imposed upon the Greek world the King‟s Peace, which she had
devised and which had been approved and dictated by the King. The cities in Asia
Minor were to be the king‟s; in return he agreed to let the rest of Greek states be
- In 378, with Theban support, Athens established a second league. Seventy states
joined, what was represented as an anti-Spartan alliance.
- Thebes gained a famous victory against the Spartans at the battle of Leuctra in
Boeotia in 371 which finally confined Sparta to the Peloponnese which she found
increasingly difficult to control.
- The Spartans never became dominant again and Athens reverted to her old
imperial ways, demanding contributions to the league treasury, using the fleet for
her own purposes, and refusing the right of secession, until in 357 a concerted
revolt caused the collapse of the league after a two-year conflict in 355.
Rise of Philip of Macedon:
- Ascended the throne in 359
- Gradually secured his power base in Macedonia and against tribes in Thrace,
Paeonia and Illyria and in 357 gained control of the strategic coastal city of
Amphipolis – formerly Athenian and still wanted by them.
- Continued victories against non-Greek neighbours got him invited by Thessalians
to assist in a conflict against their southern neighbours. This victory in 352
established his power and extended his influence in Greece,
- After victories in Thrace, Chalcidice, and Olynthus Philip now controlled the
Aegean seacoast from Thermopylae to the Propontis (minus Thracian
- He was a great commander, reorganized the Macedonian army and exploited its
new weapon: a 13-foot spear as opposed to the usual 6 foot one used by Greek
- His early access to the gold of Thrace through control of Amphipolis increased
his own resources and perhaps enabled him to use bribery as an instrument of
- Isocrates saw Philip as having the potential to lead the Greek states in a united
campaign against Persia.
The Opposition of Demosthenes:
- Demosthenes urged the Athenian assembly to take heed to the warning of Philip.
- A leading political figure at the time, Demosthenes was part of the embassy that
negotiated peace with Philip in 346.
- As a champion of liberty and democracy, he found all that Philip represented
anathema. - Fear that democracy would not be enough – Philip controlled his army, state and
treasury, was answerable to no one and could respond to any situation with
efficiency, single-mindedness and speed.
- Urged for the Athenians to be taken out of their complacency and realize no one
will save them, they are the last ones standing.
logographers – prose writers
- offers the pubic the result of his enquiry in order to preserve the memory and
renown of great and remarkable deeds done both by the Greeks and the non-
- Aims to show the reason why they came into conflict.
- Influence of Ionian natural philosophers – especially Heraclitus
- He gives us a history and description, geographical and ethnographical, of the
whole of the Near East.
- Father of history, anthropology and ethnology.
- He acquired the material for his history sometimes from written records but
usually from what he saw for himself or was told by he met on his extensive
- Recognized that cultures were relative.
- He does not write in the belief that the Greeks are the chosen people of the gods
whose victory is divinely ordained.
- Never takes upon himself the role of prophet, nor do the gods intervene crudely in
his history of the Persian Wars in such a way as to compromise the exercise of
- The critique of monarchy and the ideal of democracy stand out.
- Though not an Athenian, and evidently writing at a time when Athens was
unpopular as a result of her empire, Herodotus boldly hauls freedom-loving
Athens as the saviour of Greece.
- He has no doubt that Greek civic values represent a higher order of things than
- Unsure of how true some of it really is, but pretty favourably regarded.
- The chief source for the Peloponnesian War and its immediate antecedents.
- From an aristocratic family and was an Athenian general.
- Relied chiefly on oral sources, and did not have the disadvantage of often dealing
with long-forgotten events.
- Thucydides is always regarded as the more scientific, the more accurate and
reliable in matters of chronology and fact, and the more questioning and searching
in his powers of analysis. - Regarded the historical process as an entirely human affair and excluded the
divine from his account, though he recognized the influence played by belief in
the divine upon human events.
- He is hard-headed in the determination of fact and rigorous in his political
analysis. It is written with great imaginative power and dramatic intensity.
- Thucydides shows us Athens in a decline and fall from greatness, the tyrant city
betrayed by various forms of excess into overreaching itself with tragic
- Xenophon, a friend of Socrates, continued where Thucydides left off, but without
his concentration, objectivity and penetrating interest in causes. Best work:
- Polybius (200-120) is Thucydides most worth successor. He puts Roman success
down to good fortune and the balanced nature of their constitution, with its blend
of monarchical, aristocratic and democratic elements. His history deals mostly
with the later period in which the Hellenistic kingdoms came into conflict with
- Plutarch has written about the career of Alexander and the beginnings of the
- His writings are of great individuals shaping and influencing events, he writes
with an attractive flourish.
- Arrian is regarded as the most reliable of the sources for the career of Alexander.
- He is more systematic and is not writing either to please his readers or with the
predominant moral preoccupation of Plutarch.
Herodotus‟s story of the encounter between the Lydian King Croesus, reckoned as one of
the richest men in the world, and Solon, the wise Athenian.
The King is waiting to be told he is the happiest man. Solon says the happiest man
saw his children born and raised and died a noble death in battle. The next happiest were
two wealthy boys who took the yoke of their moms carriage and brought her to the
temple and died in there. When the King calls him out, Solon answers that the gods bring
fate to people and could not call him happy when he may lose everything the next day.
Depends on whether or not he dies a happy death can he be called happy. Gods send
down misfortune – his prized son is going to die. He protected him and made him take a
wife. A man ostracized from his own home for killing his brother, Adrastus, was
welcomed into the land. There was a huge boar that was killing n hurting, people asked
for his son to help them. King says no. Son pissed, wants to be brave – tells him of the
prophecy. Boar does not have iron weapon, convinces dad to let him go. King sends
Adrastus out on the mission with him. Doesn‟t want to, but will protect him. Adrastus
attempts to throw his spear at the boar and kills Atys. He forgave him, but Adrastus killed
himself on the tomb.
Thucydides Pericles funeral oration.
- have incredible army
- happy little Greece with their nice homes and things done out of merit
- knowledge is important
- noblest citizens are those that gave up their lives.
Account of the plague
- Typhoid fever spread like wildfire
- It first began, it is said, in the parts of Ethiopia above Egypt, and thence
descended into Egypt and Libya and into most of the [Persian] King's country.
Suddenly falling upon Athens, it first attacked the population in Piraeus
- but people in good health were all of a sudden attacked by violent heats in the
head, and redness and inflammation in the eyes, the inward parts, such as the
throat or tongue, becoming bloody and emitting an unnatural and fetid breath.
These symptoms were followed by sneezing and hoarseness, after which the pain
soon reached the chest, and produced a hard cough. When it fixed in the stomach,
it upset it; and discharges of bile of every kind named by physicians ensued,
accompanied by very great distress. In most cases also an ineffectual retching
followed, producing violent spasms, which in some cases ceased soon after, in
others much later.
- Externally the body was not very hot to the touch, nor pale in its appearance, but
reddish, livid, and breaking out into small pustules and ulcers.
- For the disorder first settled in the head, ran its course from thence through the
whole of the body, and, even where it did not prove mortal, it still left its mark on
the extremities; for it settled in the privy parts, the fingers and the toes, and many
escaped with the loss of these, some too with that of their eyes. Others again were
seized with an entire loss of memory on their first recovery, and did not know
either themselves or their friends.
- No remedy was found that could be used as a specific; for what did good in one
case, did harm in another
- through having caught the infection in nursing each other. This caused the
- Fear of gods or law of man there was none to restrain them.
Cleon‟s speech about what to do with Mytilenians
- argues that they had grievously hurt them.
- Let them now therefore be punished as their crime requires, and do not, while you
condemn the aristocracy, absolve the people.
- . Their offence was not involuntary, but of malice and deliberate; and mercy is
only for unwilling offenders.
- Do not, therefore, be traitors to yourselves, but recall as nearly as possible the
moment of suffering and the supreme importance which you then attached to their
reduction; and now pay them back in their turn, without yielding to present
weakness or forgetting the peril that once hung over you. Punish them as they
deserve, and teach your other allies by a striking example that the penalty of
rebellion is death. Dec 3 – Alexander the Great and his Successors
Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age
- In the year after Chaerona, Philip called a conference of all the Greek states at
Corinth and announced a decision to make war on Persia to liberate the Greek
cities of Asia Minor and punish the Persians for acts of sacrilege committed in the
days of Xerxes.
- On the eve of setting sail, Philip assassinated. Alexander, 23, was immediately
faced with revolt on all fronts.
- Was elected as father‟s successor as general of the Greeks.
- Quelled rebellions in Illyria and Thrace. When Thebes rebelled, occupied and
destroyed it, selling citizens into slavery.
- Having settled Greece, he immediately undertook the proposed expedition to
Persia, with a huge army of nearly 50,000 men.
- Core – formidable Macedonian phalanx, but also cavalry, archer and light-armed
- Passing though Ionia, he liberated Persian controlled cities (oligarchies) to
democracies and funded buildings like temples. By end of 334 had liberated most
of Asia Minor.
- Cuts the knot at the town of Gordium, ruler of the whole world.
- In 333, he defeated the Persian king Darius at the battle of the Issus. Having
secured Phoenicia, Palestine and Egypt, he marched to Babylonia for the final
reckoning with Darius, whom he brought to battle and defeated decisively at
Gaugamela in 331.
- King of Asia, wanted to spread Greek language and culture, only stopped when
troops refused to go on.
- After twelve years he suddenly died in 323, his empire was divided among his
- The power struggle that followed and lasted for some 50 years resulted in three
dynastic kingdoms stemming from his general Antigonus, Ptolemy and Seleucus
- Antigonids controlled Macedonia and mainland Greece.
- Ptolemies ruled Egypt and part of Asia Minor with their capital at Alexandria.
- Seleucids took over the old Persian empire with their capital at Antioch.
- Attalids established a fourth dynasty with the Seleucid territory.
- Basic philhellenism manifesting itself in urban planning, cultural life and to some
extent in social organization but operating in a much more open and cosmopolitan
world than had been the case in the smaller and more exclusive unit of the
classical city state,
- The Romans conquered the Macedonian empire in 197, and after their destruction
of Corinth in 146, Greece became a Roman protectorate.
- Hellenism now spread westwards as the Greeks began to educate and civilize their
uncultivated conquerors. 139-141
Hellenistic Literature: Alexandrianism:
- Owing to its museum and library, Alexandria soon became the literary capital of
the Helenistic world.
- Hellenistic poets invented the short mythological narrative subsequently called
the epyllion or brief epic.
- Callimachus‟s preference for small-scale genres over epic narratives on familiar
themes, his learned allusiveness and his refined style have come to represent a
mode or style of literary composition called “Alexandrianism” which was greatly
influential with later roman poets such as Catallus and Horace in the first century.
- Doubtless standards were set here that influenced the copying of texts and book
production throughout the ancient world.
Jan 7: Hellenistic Art, Science and Culture
Hellenistic Philosophy: Post-Aristotelians
- philosophy became less theoretical and more practical, offering the individual a
design for living independent of external circumstances
- Zeno of Citium in Cyprus was the founder of the Stoic school at Athens. He
began his philosophical life as one of the Cynics, whose chief doctrine was that
self-sufficiency could bring contentment in all the vicissitudes of life.
- Zeno was influenced by Socratic philosophy in the making of his own teaching.
- Virtue is based upon knowledge; only the wise man can be truly virtuous and
harmonize his reason with Nature that is ruled by the greater reason, the Logos.
The wise man, ruled by reason, will be indifferent to the passions, and
independent of the vagaries of fortune in the knowledge that pleasure is not a
good, and pain and death are not evils.
- Later teaches adapted Stoic philosophy to Rome – passed down to us through
Cicero, Seneca, Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius.
- Epicurus saw pleasure as being free from the worldly binds- desires.
- Advances were made in mathematics with the Elements of Euclid and the
discoveries of Archimedes. Aristarchus even advanced the hypothesis of a
- As the Greeks did not invent the microscope or telescope, progress in
experimental science was limited.
Fourth Century Sculpture:
- The greatest master of later sculpture is the Athenian Praxiteles. Hermes with the
infant Dionysus is usually thought to be an original from him, and if so, is one of
the few free-standing statues to have survived from the classical period.
- Hermes – thought to be holding out grapes to which the infant is reaching out for.
- Known as the author of most famous statue in ancient world = the Cnidian
Aphrodite. Praxiteles made and sold together two statues of the goddess, one draped and for this reason preferred by the people of Cos while the other, was
wholly nude and bought by the people of Cnidos.
The Hellenistic Period (from the conquest of Alexander in 323):
- Lysippus of Sicyon is notable for being influential. He worked in bronze and was
extremely prolific and popular; many Roman copies of his statutes are extant.
- One of his most famous, Apoxyomenos (Man using a body scraper), it was so
admired by emperor Tiberius that he removed it from its accustomed place before
the Thermae “Warm Baths” at Rome to the bedroom of his private residence, until
adverse public reaction caused him to restore it.
- Lysippus would make the head smaller, the body less square and limbs longer in
order to make it look larger.
- Has to be taken in completely 360.
- Alexander the Great found him as the only one worthy to reproduce him.
- Pergamum altar is a reconstructed frieze which is thought to be for Zeus
(potentially Athena).The inner frieze represents the story of Telephus, a son of
Heracles and the mythical founder of the city. Other parts of the frieze represent