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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
Christopher Brown

Classics Notes - Rome and Greek tied in culture Sources of evidence - Archaeology Place names in Italy are non-indo European  Indo European speakers arrived from elsewhere Rome is in Latium, Latial phases Latial Phases I (1000-875 BC) - Little evidence - Burial urns - No habitation sites (can’t access them) - Final bronze age (pre-urban) IIA (875-800BC), IIB (800-750) - Divided phase into 2, 2 population groups - Excavation of ancient Gabii - Low economic development Day to day struggling No importance of creative/intellectual No time to develop elite culture, nothing that wasn’t essential - Population: 100, no social stratification, 2 extended forms - Early iron age (pre urban)proto urban III (750-700BC) - Settlements increase in size - Economic advancement, specialization Olive/wine production, pottery More diversified economy - Domestic pottery, influenced by Greek design - Tombs distinct by wealth Social stratification, class system developing - Early iron age, proto urban IV (700-580BC) - Good from East (Greece) Orientalzing period Pottery influence from Greeks/Greek Gods - Increase in wealth Evident in burials Buildings - Tombs show disposable wealth, celebration of military skill - Rise of wealthy land owning class - Tribal within chieftains, head of Gentes (familial, clan group) - Rise of centralized authority More speculative Rome=centralized empire - Orientalizing, urban Literary Tradition in Rome - Most come from Republican period - Mythical accounts - Foundation of Rome connected with Trojan hero Aeneas Links Rome with Greece tradition - Story of Romulus and Remus Names derived from Roma Indo European myth of twins Common theme in myths Numitor (King of Alba Long) dethroned by brother Amulius Amulius made Numitor’s dauther Rhea Silva a vestal virgin to avoid avengers (she cannot produce children to avenge him) Cult of Goddess Vesta important in Rome Roman counterpart to Greek Hestia Rome had communal hearth that represented Rome, tended by priestess of Vesta, not tainted by sexuality If compromised by sexuality, vestal virgin=buried alive Rhea Silva raped by Mars, bore twins Amulius imprisoned Rhea Silva, threw twins into Tiber River (killing kin was pollution, he would not be responsible for their death) Twins washed ashore, suckled by shewolf Found by Faustulus (royal herdsman) Faustulus and wife Acca Larentia brought up twins Grew up, became leaders on daring exploits (associated to young men of city, puberty initiation) One time Remus was captured and brought before Numitor Romulus comes to rescue- Realize father Twins kill Amulius, restore Numitor to throne Found home for them and band of young men on site of Rome Romulus walled the city, Remus killed for leaping over walls Twins usually come into fatal contact with each other Death connected with walls Romulus left as leader Offered asylum to fugitives, gave them wives by stealing daughters of Sabini Women seen as part of household Marriage=problematic, leaving fathers house Wives in Greek myths=Betrayers - Myths with abduction and rape Persephone: loss of daughter through marriage and death - Father had deal with Hades - Persephone abducted The Sabines: abducted by Romans - Sabini men wait to pursue them, already married/pregnant - Men are mad, war with Romans - Women rush into battle, beg them to stop - Sabini and Romans ally - Women help, do not betray fathers - Wedding ritualMock abduction Going away willingly=betrayal - After 40 years Romulus disappeared in Storm, became God Quirinus - Romulus=Roman, Remus formed from Roma - Myth attached to Rome, early as 3 C BCd - MeaningFoundation, connection with band of youth, youthadults Puberty initiation, about army - Romulus’ death Two versions (storm and murder) Romans called Quirites Similar God to Mars The Early Kingdom - Early regal period (republican evidence) - Rex Sacrorum: King of Sacrifices - Religious building in the Forum called Regia (Royal building)Early kingship - Archaic inscription mentions a rex - Could be a priestly office Administered by priestly hierarchy? 7 Kings of Rome - Romulus - Numa Pompilus - Tullius Hostilus - Ancus Marcius - Tarquinius Priscus - Servius Tullius - Tarquinius Superbus - May be real namesHistorical succession unlikely - Some stories may be factual Etruscans - Pre Roman indigenous people of Italy Tyresenoi, Tyrrheni, Etrusci - At one point dominated Italy - Significant, highly developed Culture, not much literature and art survived Not just a precursor to Greece and Rome Language - Less understanding of grammer and lexicon - 9000 epigraphic texts - Liber Linteus: Linen book - 40-50 glosses - Etruscan loan words in Latin (Roman took words and Latinized) - Alphabet taken from West Greek Alphabet Adapted Civilization - 2 accounts of origin Arrived from East Authchthonous - Story of Tyrrhenus leading of exodus from Lydia to Italy=political fabrication - Occupied Iron Age settlement in Italy th th - EvidenceDevelopment in culture and society in 8 and 7 BC - Artistic tradition Painted pottery Bucchero (Etruscan pottery) Bronze work Jewelry - Cinerary urns, sarcophagi survived - Sarcophagus dei sposi (of the married couple) Hollowed cinerary urn From the Banditacci necropolis, cerve teri - Shift from regal style society to one like the Greek polis - Class of wealthy merchants, landowners - Trade with Greece Attic vases in burial sites - Hellenized society? Imported goods make it hard to determine Etruscan character - Evidence of imperial expansion - Etruscan presence in Early Rome Tarquin Dynasty Lucius Tarquinuis Priscus - Depiction of Etruscans negative in Greek and Latin literature Piracy- matter of perspectives, commercial rivalry Social customs- position of women Theopompus - Wrote about Etruscan women Tell us more about Greek culture - Greeks concerned with legitimacy of children - Nakedness and respectability incompatible to Greeks especially with women - Respectable women would not go to symposium but Etruscan wives dined with men Greeks thought those women can make sexual advances on the men- “propose a toast” - Greeks had passive role in sexuality - Loved their wealth, negative aspect - Hair removal common - Very exaggerated All Estruscans did not live like this - Women did dine with men Participated in commensalism - Sat with men during public sporting events - Funerary inscriptions identify father and mothers last name - Had greater legal status/social than Greek women - Greater equalityGreeks see illegitimacy (not knowing who father is) - Greeks despised Etruscans Commercial and military rivals th - Greeksthanted to account for decline of Etruscan naval and land power in 5 and 4 C BC Luxury (tryphe) ’Soft countries produce soft men’ Roman Republic - Monarchy to republic - Last kingTarquinius Superbus (Tyrannical Populist, Expelled near end of 6 C BC) - Monarchy replaced by elected system - Gradual change Rex becomes less important, eventually ceremonial - Chronology and sources From late republic, principate Greek and Roman Polybius and Cassius (wrote in Greek about Rome) from Greek perspective Sources came from later than events - Roman Fasti: Calendar, list of magistrates Basic Principles - The pomeriumsacred boundary of city - Within the pomeriumHome (domus) - Outside cityMilitia - View of worldEverywhere else a potential enemy - Imperium Command Over army, authority to lead Shorthand for Romes political control over world - Gentes Family, clan Not unlike Archaic Greece, sense of elite and powerful families - Populus People Word suggests army - Res Publica Populi Romani Communal affairs of the Roman people Army related Elements of Republic Government - Collegiality: Magistrates part of boards called ‘colleges’ (priestly bureaucracies) - Popular election: magistrates elected by people in their assemblies - Annual term for office (fear of tyrant) Problematic for military campaigns - Prohibition of direct election from one office to another (1 year break) - Consuls Title of chief annual civil and military magistrates during republic Two elected annually by centurrate assembly Power of consuls was effectively that of the King- checked by another consul and restriction of time Consuls at top of hierarchy Struggle of the Orders - Patrician Families Connected with rank of Pater (father) Small number of elite families, magistrates elected from them Competition among elites for popular support of plebs- client/patron relationship - The Plebs Adjective=plebeian Non-patrician members of the populus Romanus ’Mob’ or ‘Throng’ - Struggle between Patricians and Plebs Central aspect of Republic - Behind bureaucracyFamilial kinship=alliances - Leads to dependant armies loyal to general and not state threat to republic Roman Expansion and Punic Wars o Roman Conquest of Italy - End of 5 C, Romans began quest of colonization - Italian tribes brought under Roman control - With Roman political control went culture and language Poleis remained culturally distinct Italian tribes/states became subordinate to Rome - LatinDominant language of Italy, Oscan-Umbrian, Greek, Etruscan, Gallic o Roman Imperialism - Modern term, describes growth of colonial empires in 19 and early 20 C th - Describes growth of Roman power in Italy and Romes creation of Mediterranean and European empire from 3 C BC to 1 C AD st - From 5 to 2 C BCRome=military society Imperium=military power Aspiring magistrate had to do 10 years of military service Religious and political importance of the triumph (General could lead troops and captives through Rome for military victory) - Roman expansionRooted in military strength, alliances and conquest - Romans outside ItalySecured control by establishing long term provinces - Roman imperialism=expansionist Some say it was defensive and incidentally expansionist Others say there was economic motives and want of territorial acquisition - Roman political classes believed other states should do what is required of them - The Pax Romana- Peace= Settled state of affairs enforced by military action threat o The Punic War - Carthage Phoenician colony on coast of NE Tunsia Trading centre - Sought naval control of important trading routes - Came into conflict with Greek cities of SicilyDefeat in 480BC by Tyrants - Gelon and TheronHannibal destroyed Himeria in 409BC, avenged grandfather Hamicar - Carthage and Rome - One point they were allies Carthage helped Rome defeat Epirole King Pyrrhus in 280BC - 264BCSicilian politics forced them into conflict - Rome became master of Magna Graecia, drawn into conflict between Greeks and Carthaginians for control of Sicily - First Punic War (264-241BC) - Not intentional by either side - Carthage had seapower, Rome had no navy - End=Rome took control of Sicily and Sardina, Carthage paid huge fine - Carthage lost access to silverGained interest in Spain - Uneasy peace - Romes Victory - Determination regardless of lost lives Polybius notes the number compared to wards of Hellenistic Kings - Inventiveness and adaptability, realized they must have navyCorvus (crow), approaches sea battle in new ways - Reserves of manpowerRome undaunted by loss of life Certain requirements for army (supply own equipment, own land) Regulus - M. Atilius RegulusCaptured in 255BC with his 500 troops - 250BCCarthaginians sent Regulus to Rome to negotiate prisoner exchange - Carthaginians assumed he would argue in favour of exchange but he argued against (Roman’s could afford a loss, Carthage could not) - Regulus returned to Carthage, tortured to death - Roman self identity in republicSense of honour, strategic Corvus - Technological innovation in war (naval) - Rotatable boarding bridge - Turned sea battle into landbattle - Made of wood, bridge fixed onto enemy’s ship - Addressed disadvantage in naval warfare 2 Punic War (218-201BC) - Provoked by Carthaginian activity in Spain - Wanted to reverse decision of first war and weaken Rome, protect Carthage territory in Western mediterranian - Carthage lostSuperior manpower Hannibal - Carthaginian general, 247BC - Invaded Italy before Rome declared war Wanted to detach Roman allies and weaken Roman infrastructure Gauls could revolt agains Roman Rule Carthage war with Greek cities - Forces=50000 infantry, 9000 cavalry, 27 elephants - Capable general, caused trouble in Italy - 205 was recalled to Africa - Defeated by Scipio/Africanus at Zama in 202, urged Carthage to make peace - Suicide in 183/2 BC - Roman’s saw him as evil - One of the greatest generals Combined infantry and cavalry Importance of military intelligence and reconnaissance Loyalty from troops - Defeated, his strategy was on assumption Gauls would defect in large numbers Carthage would command sea Reinforcements from Spain Roman confederation would fall rd 3 Punic War (149-146BC) - Provoked by Carthage - Defeated by Roman expeditionary force sent to Africa - Roman’s sacked city of Carthage - Surviving populationSold into slavery, city destroyed Effects of Roman Conquest - Results from Hannibalic War Competent military leaders elected repeatedly - Normal career path sometimes ignored Scipio Aemilianus - Imperium and growing empire caused problems - Increase in personal wealth By product of war and empire Wealth essential for personal ambition Growth of equestrian class (not as high as Patrician, intermarriages with them) - Wealth consisted in land owning Only stable long term investment Trading considered infra dignitatem (beneath one’s dignity) - Wealth acquired through wars of conquest used to buy land - Wealthy Romans owned many large estates Worked by number of slaves (captured in war) - War had negative impact on small holders Could not compete in market with large estates Wealthy made effort to buy small properties Male head of household often away on military service - Demise of smallholdingsFormer occupants migrated to Rome, consequence for military since soldiers required to provide own equipment (only ones with sufficient property were recruited) - Wealth/power of senatorial class led to arroganceResentment among Italian allies excluded from power 1 C BC - Collapse of Republic - Rome’s conquest of Mediterranean basin created problems Land reform Italian allies desired Roman citizenship - Oligarchy response was problematic Political turmoil Agitation against senatorial oligarchy Division within senatorial class The Gracchi - Tiberius Sempronius Grachus and Gaius Sempronius Grachus - Belonged to elite family - Tiberius verbally attacked in senate by Scipio Aemilianus joined hostile group to him - 133BC Tribune of plens, in Scipio’s absence, proposed law to address question of land reform Motivated by military concern Proposed law involves confiscation of land - Grachus submitted law to plebs without discussion in senate, caused problems - Law vetoed by M. Octavius, Gracchus removed him from office - Ignored Senates will on foreign policy - Wanted immediate re-election to avoid prosecution for perduellio (activity hostile to state) immune while in office - Alienated supporters, increased fears of tyranny - Assasinated by mob of senators led by the pontifex maximus - Beginning of Roman Revolution Marius and Sulla - Gaius Marius (157-96BC) - Example of novous homo (new man) from recently acquired wealth - Used popular support to gain control - Repeatedly elected consul - Allowed landless to enlist in armyCreated ‘client armies’, could threaten state - Minor policies/legislative initiatives of his ownExploited others work - Cornelius Sulla Felix (138-79BC - From Patrician Family - Used army to seize control of Rome - Introduced significant reforms - Deprived himself of power, restored constitutional government (wanted to fix system, no personal gain) - Died of natural causes in retirement - Rebellion made civil war inevitable - Sulla’s Reforms Tribunate was weakened (prevents another C. Gracchus) Increase in praetors to 8 (10 Magistrates with imperium) Deals with 10 Provinces Governors need approval from senate of people to wage war (restrains urges) New senators enrolled to make up for lossesMostly from equestrian class Gaius Julius Caesar (100-15 March 44BC) - From Patrician family, claimed descent from Venus and Aeneas (common to claim divine routes) - Political ambition - Influence through political alliance with Pompey and Crassus (first Triumvirate) - Conquest in GaulDefeat of Pharnaces at Zela in 47BC (Crimean territories) - Relationship with CleopatrySon: Ptolemy Caesar - Civil warEnded with Caesar in control of Roman state - Author of Commentaril (Civil and Gallic War)Simple Latin - Granted honours by Senate - Dressed in manner of early kings, did not assume title Rex - Created divide cult of himself M. Antonius designated chief priest, flamen - Assassinated by a conspiracy as he prepared to attack ParthiaNo one wanted to be ruled by an absent divine monarch - Killed on steps of senate (not in forum) - Possible location now on a cat sanctuary - Last word You too Brutus (Shakespeare) In Greek: Kai su, teknon (You too Son) Hostile response to avert ‘evil eye’, died in defiance Mosaiic of eye being attacked, designed to protect house Believed he would restore the republic (like Sulla) Appointment as lifetime dictator says otherwise, dictator not a bad term Conspiracy led by Romans who believed in old senatorial oligarchy Thought Caesar was an obstacle - After death Old republican system did not return Hostilities between supporters of conspirators and loyal followers Conflict between M. Antonius and Caesar Octavian (Caesar’s adopted heir) Battle of Actium 31BC was decisive Antony and Cleopatra went to Egypt, committed suicide Octavian and supporters controlled Mediterranean world Cleopatra VII (63-30BC) - Queen in 51BC Ruled alone first then with younger brothers Greek rulers adopted brother-sister marriage for royalty - Had children with both Caesar and M. Antonius - Successful ruler - First Ptolemy to know Egyptian Spoke several languages (not Latin) Elite Romans spoke Greek Greeks hesitant to learn Latin - Plutarch: Successful for conversation not looks - Legend of her more powerful than historical record Myths concerned with great beauty Author of treaties on hairdressing/cosmetics - Relationship with M. Antonius was focus of Octavian’s propaganda Typical strategy, demonize the enemy, make them out to be evil Tend to get Octavian’s (Augustus’) side of things in literature ’Monster’, ‘wicked woman’ Fear of Egyptian wealth, foreignness? - Hate for Cleopatra Detract from the idea of civil war Roman’s fighting non-Romans instead - She was actually helping Antony - Roman’s trouble with civil warBrother vs. brother - Octavian presented conflict with Antony as against non-RomansSeem virtuous in victory, secured his position, restored republic Horace on death of Cleopatra - Odes 1.37 - Close to Augustus himself, part of inner circle of Augustan elite - Poetry under AugustusPoetry of patronage - Poem involves celebration of death of tyrant - Cleopatra’s death is celebrated - Contrast between good Roman wine and bad Egyptian wine - No mention of Antony, Cleopatra is enemy - Emphasis on foreignness - ‘Drunk as he was, Augustus sobered her up’ - Caesar is the hawk/hunter Cleopatra as dove, may evoke sympathy Recognition of humanness - Fatale monstrum: monsters in Latin, some kind of larger significance, divine warning, something unnatural and significant Not that she was horrible, but threatening - As brave and noble in death as a Roman male - Did not run away - Horace presents means of death as courageousAdmiration - Trumphus: refers to a very specific occasion, celebrating return of triumphant general Routinely there was a display of plunder but also often a display of captured POW Those who would ceremonially escort the captives were from tribe of Liburnians Called Saevis (cruel), strong word in Latin coming from Romans - Superbo… trimpho: SuperboMeans pride but can mean something more than that, pride that goes too far - Poem recog
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