Term 1 ALL NOTES.docx

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Classical Studies
Course
Classical Studies 1000
Professor
Introductory Lecture
'Classical Heritage': Greek and Roman
Survey of Greek History
3000-700 BC: Bronze, Iron, & Dark Ages
700-490 BC: Archaic Age
490-323 BC: Classical Age
323-30 BC: Hellenistic Age- means Greek-like, Alexander the Great
The Minoans (3000-1150 BC)
Prehistoric Greece (40,000- 750 BC)
Palaeolithic Era (500000-10000 BC)
Mesolithic Era (10000-7000 BC)
Neolithic Era (7000-3000 BC)
Bronze Age (3000-1150 BC)
Crete and King Minos
Knossos
Thalassocracy- Power through naval power
The Minotaur- King’s wife slept with bull
o The Labyrinth- maze under place where Minotaur lived
o Theseus of Athens- Vowed to slay Minotaur
o Ariadne- fell in love with Theseus, gave him sword and string to make it through the
maze
o Theseus slew minotaur
Palace at Knossos
3.2 acres
3 stories tall
Agglutinative- how it was designed to look like a maze
Light Wells; Pillar-Door Partitions
They were not afraid of attackers; no walls around buildings
Minoan Art and Culture
Bull Leapers- myth of bull, bull was sacred
Marine Art- proud of their sea heritage
Frescoes
Snake Goddesses
Double Axes
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Palace Culture of Crete (1700-1500 BC)
Before bronze everyone involved in agriculture
Better tools due to bronze people do other things
centralized government
promotes civilization
permits more craftsmen
need for new technologies
contact w/ other cultures
Minoan Vulnerability
used as port
counted on other powers for protection
Linear A
The Minoan language
Unable to be translated
Textbook Notes (15- 26)
Humans have lived in Greece for 40000 years, however is not until the Neolithic Age (c 7000 BC)
that the cultivation of plants began to occur. The next major advance in prehistoric Greece was the
discovery of bronze, which was the superior metal of the time. The early Greeks drew heavily upon
Eastern cultures in their development. The first Greek speakers were Indo- Europeans that first
appeared c 2000. They destroyed much of Greece, and rebuilt it with the Greek language at its heart.
Around 1900, Crete began to emerge as the center of Aegean civilization. Mycenae was also a
very important center. The Excavation of these two sites gives us most of our insight into Greek culture.
Mycenaean palaces tended to be large and complex, with many rooms designated as storehouses, with
a central court called a megaron. The economies of the area were based on a system of storage and
redistribution by the palace. Cretans developed Linear A to keep records of this storage system.
Mycenaeans: 1650-1200 BC
Mycenae
First evidence at Mycenae
Agamemnon’s Palace
May not all have been united
Similar architecture and palaces
Grave Shafts
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2-5 people per grave shaft
Buried royalty underground
They were protected from looters
Many objects were buried with the graves
The objects were not created in Greece, but traded for
Who were the Mycenaeans?
Raiders- like Vikings, would attack by ship
Mercenaries- working for other kingdoms as hired warriors
Africans- Egyptians came and appointed their own people to control the local populace
Tholos tombs
Cyclopean Masonry- extremely large blocks, not understood by later Greeks
Corbelled dome- Each layer of stone is progressively closer together
New way to bury the dead
Replaced grave circles
Linear B
Recorded on clay, which are preserved when heated up in fire (pottery)
Different from Linear A (Minoans)
In 1950, the language was broken by first deciphering the word “tripod”
Ancestor of Greek language, consisting of syllables and icons
Showed that they Mycenaeans had similar religion, including gods to later Greeks
Mainly used to record stores
Discovered by Michael Ventris
Minoan Crete c. 1450
Widespread destruction, Mycenaeans appear
Mycenaean vs. Minoan palaces
Disaster strike Crete
Mycenaean vs. Minoan culture
Mycenaean culture begin to take over Crete and Minoan culture begins to die
Mycenaeans worshipped outside of the cities, Minoans within
o The Mycenaeans would build shrines in the countryside
Mycenaeans begin to mimic Minoan palaces and alter their own architecture
Mycenaean architecture uses Minoan symbols such as bulls, double axes,
Mycenaean Art and Culture
The ‘Mask of Agamemnon’- ‘King of Kings’, discovered by Heimlich Schliemann
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Document Summary

3000-700 bc: bronze, iron, & dark ages. 323-30 bc: hellenistic age- means greek-like, alexander the great. Agglutinative- how it was designed to look like a maze. They were not afraid of attackers; no walls around buildings. Bull leapers- myth of bull, bull was sacred. Marine art- proud of their sea heritage. Palace culture of crete (1700-1500 bc) centralized government. Better tools due to bronze people do other things. Need for new technologies contact w/ other cultures. Used as port counted on other powers for protection. Humans have lived in greece for 40000 years, however is not until the neolithic age (c 7000 bc) that the cultivation of plants began to occur. The next major advance in prehistoric greece was the discovery of bronze, which was the superior metal of the time. The first greek speakers were indo- europeans that first appeared c 2000. They destroyed much of greece, and rebuilt it with the greek language at its heart.

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