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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
David Lamari

Introductory Lecture 'Classical Heritage': Greek and Roman Survey of Greek History  3000-700 BC: Bronze, Iron, & Dark Ages  700-490 BC: Archaic Age  490-323 BC: Classical Age  323-30 BC: Hellenistic Age- means Greek-like, Alexander the Great The Minoans (3000-1150 BC)  Prehistoric Greece (40,000- 750 BC)  Palaeolithic Era (500000-10000 BC)  Mesolithic Era (10000-7000 BC)  Neolithic Era (7000-3000 BC)  Bronze Age (3000-1150 BC) Crete and King Minos  Knossos  Thalassocracy- Power through naval power  The Minotaur- King’s wife slept with bull o The Labyrinth- maze under place where Minotaur lived o Theseus of Athens- Vowed to slay Minotaur o Ariadne- fell in love with Theseus, gave him sword and string to make it through the maze o Theseus slew minotaur Palace at Knossos  3.2 acres  3 stories tall  Agglutinative- how it was designed to look like a maze  Light Wells; Pillar-Door Partitions  They were not afraid of attackers; no walls around buildings Minoan Art and Culture  Bull Leapers- myth of bull, bull was sacred  Marine Art- proud of their sea heritage  Frescoes  Snake Goddesses  Double Axes Palace Culture of Crete (1700-1500 BC)  Before bronze everyone involved in agriculture  Better tools due to bronze people do other things  centralized government  promotes civilization  permits more craftsmen  need for new technologies  contact w/ other cultures Minoan Vulnerability  used as port  counted on other powers for protection Linear A  The Minoan language  Unable to be translated Textbook Notes (15- 26) Humans have lived in Greece for 40000 years, however is not until the Neolithic Age (c 7000 BC) that the cultivation of plants began to occur. The next major advance in prehistoric Greece was the discovery of bronze, which was the superior metal of the time. The early Greeks drew heavily upon Eastern cultures in their development. The first Greek speakers were Indo- Europeans that first appeared c 2000. They destroyed much of Greece, and rebuilt it with the Greek language at its heart. Around 1900, Crete began to emerge as the center of Aegean civilization. Mycenae was also a very important center. The Excavation of these two sites gives us most of our insight into Greek culture. Mycenaean palaces tended to be large and complex, with many rooms designated as storehouses, with a central court called a megaron. The economies of the area were based on a system of storage and redistribution by the palace. Cretans developed Linear A to keep records of this storage system. Mycenaeans: 1650-1200 BC Mycenae  First evidence at Mycenae  Agamemnon’s Palace  May not all have been united  Similar architecture and palaces Grave Shafts  2-5 people per grave shaft  Buried royalty underground  They were protected from looters  Many objects were buried with the graves  The objects were not created in Greece, but traded for Who were the Mycenaeans?  Raiders- like Vikings, would attack by ship  Mercenaries- working for other kingdoms as hired warriors  Africans- Egyptians came and appointed their own people to control the local populace Tholos tombs  Cyclopean Masonry- extremely large blocks, not understood by later Greeks  Corbelled dome- Each layer of stone is progressively closer together  New way to bury the dead  Replaced grave circles Linear B  Recorded on clay, which are preserved when heated up in fire (pottery)  Different from Linear A (Minoans)  In 1950, the language was broken by first deciphering the word “tripod”  Ancestor of Greek language, consisting of syllables and icons  Showed that they Mycenaeans had similar religion, including gods to later Greeks  Mainly used to record stores  Discovered by Michael Ventris Minoan Crete c. 1450  Widespread destruction, Mycenaeans appear  Mycenaean vs. Minoan palaces  Disaster strike Crete Mycenaean vs. Minoan culture  Mycenaean culture begin to take over Crete and Minoan culture begins to die  Mycenaeans worshipped outside of the cities, Minoans within o The Mycenaeans would build shrines in the countryside  Mycenaeans begin to mimic Minoan palaces and alter their own architecture  Mycenaean architecture uses Minoan symbols such as bulls, double axes, Mycenaean Art and Culture  The ‘Mask of Agamemnon’- ‘King of Kings’, discovered by Heimlich Schliemann  Ceremonial daggers- Minoan art, bronze and gold,  Armour-  Chariots  Frescoes- Orpheus, famous poet/ musician, may show that Mycenaeans are African General Chaos: 1200-1100  Mycenae was extensively fortified  Every palace was almost simultaneously destroyed  They tried to rebuild and refortify, but were destroyed again  Troy- Was also destroyed, later rebuilt  Hittites- powerful in Turkey, suddenly disappeared  Cyprus- powerful trading culture suffered  Levant- Israel, etc suffered extremely  Egypt- most powerful and stable empire suffered as well The Dark Age (1150- 700 BC)  The offspring of Hercules (Dorians) were mistreated and the Greeks drove them out  The offspring of these people came back and took revenge by causing chaos and destruction  Severe loss of culture and skills  No one race or culture could have done this  The Sea People- Egyptian name for repeat attackers Systems Collapse  The more complex a society becomes, the larger consequences of small problems become  The collapse was started by a relatively small problem  Earthquakes  Slave Revolts  Plague  Pirates  Multiple causation Dark Age: 1150-700  Limited Artifacts  Loss of Technology  No contact w/ Outside world  Population down 75%  Most people fleeing towards Asia Minor  Palaces abandoned because they cannot be maintained  Emigration  Iron Age- Iron was discovered because bronze was no longer available o Turned out to be a better material for tools and warfare Revival and Renaissance: 900-700 BC  Trade between cultures promotes growth  Land is quickly taken by the rich elite  Alphabet is discovered o Largely phonetic and an advance over Linear B  Pan-Hellenism- connections between Greeks  Events between Greeks, promoting nationality and xenophobia Textbook Notes (26-46, 59-63, 66-68)  Crete was a major influence on the Mycenaeans.  The zenith of Mycenaean culture was between 1400 and 1200.  The wanax was the king and ruler of the palace. o He was a warrior instead of a politician o The lawagetas was the leader of the military.  The redistribution system provided an excellent life for the leaders, and a very poor one for the lower class.  Slavery was common in Mycenae, and worked for either the palace or for wealthy individuals.  They were exceedingly thorough in their records.  The place was the center of all religious activity.  Mycenaeans fought with bronze weapons and armour, and occasionally used chariots  Basileus- King or chief o Owned large houses which were the center of the town o Important ones found at Lefkandi and Nichoria  Had grave shafts inside Homer- the Iliad and the Odyssey Epic Poetry and Preliterate Cultures  Long poems, in elevated language describing elevated deeds  Most preliterate literature is poetry because it is easier to remember Iliad and Odyssey  16000 and 12000 lines  During or immediately after the Trojan War (c. 1200 BC) o Basis is that Paris, son of King Priam of Troy, seduces and takes Helen from Menelaus, angering Agamemnon o May have actually occurred, Mycenae and Troy may have been found  Troy was in Asia Minor  Iliad and Odyssey do not specifically describe the Trojan War  There are multiple versions of the poems, but a pure form has been agreed on over time  The reputation of the Iliad o Was the supreme example of Greek values o Was the ‘Bible’ for the Greeks  Later Greeks and Homer o Homer- Blind Bard from the 8th C. o Later Greeks believed Trojan War a Historical Event o Iliad was the basis for poetry, song, theatre, art and Greek culture The Homeric Question  Fragmented Form- composed of different dialects, diction is odd, spelling changes throughout, inconsistent plot, certain sections treat iron as a commonplace material, characters die and reappear  Coherent Content- theme of Achilles wrath is extremely consistent  Oral Bards o Alfred Lourd interviewed several bards in Yugoslavia o Illiteracy- almost all bards are illiterate o Improvisation- They did not have the poems memorized, but improvised. They made up most poems o This accounted for the inaccuracies  Homer would have picked up things from other bards that he would use Homeric Epic  Blend of Cultures and Eras o 1200- 700 BC o All of the Mediterranean cultures o Cannot ascertain which parts of the poems are from which time periods or areas  Greece, Aegean, Ionia The Homeric World  There is no right or wrong, only a sense of self  They fight to determine who is a better person  Christianity tells us to postpone happiness  Homer tells us to embrace joy as it is fleeting  Men revel in their own power and might  Center of society was the family (oikos) o Each oikos had a kleros to occupy and farm  Basileuses were not supreme leaders, but took input from their people  The sense of greatness was determined by a man’s deeds  Raiding was a common occurrence  Xenia was a type of alliance between demoi  A man is either good (agathos) or bad (kakos) Textbook Readings (46- 57)  Protogeometric style evolves into geometric o Patterns become more refined and new ways to use lines emerge o Humans begin to appear as linear representations  Odysseus describes how he made a feat to recruit men for the Trojan war  Andromanche laments her husband and the fate of women and children Myth  A story that has been around for a long time  an tell many stories at once  Greek myth is human- dominated (anthropomorphic) o The gods reflect many human qualities  Greek myths can have many different conflicting myths  No ‘orthodox’ version of Greek myths o No dominating presence in religion o Greeks believed in multiple versions of the same quality ex. Love  This translated into many different version of the god’s personality  Ex. Zeus changed from the unquestionable father figure, to a person who gives out reasons to a wise, fair figure  Greek myths do not contain supernatural ideals, but contain qualities from the real world o Things are not idealized and the gods do not stand above bad qualities  Is a type of therapy for a culture to deal with their fears  The Greeks did not believe in a traditional afterlife, but a shadowy existence in Hades Rebirth Myth  Has to do with spring and new life  Reminds us that life is circular and things will eventually get betted Transgressive Myth  Myths about people who wish to live a life that is denied to them o Ex. Women who want to rule, compete or hold important jobs, want sexual freedom  They usually end badly o Told comforting men who were insecure Charter Myth  Explains the history of a people (non- historical) o History of Athens o Dorians are descendants of Hercules Aetiological Myth  Explains natural phenomenon that the Greeks could not explain Hesiod  Comes from Asia Minor and moves to Greece  Non- aristocrat, farmer  Came into contact with Muses, who gave him the gift of song  Wrote Theogony, which gives a history of the gods Works and Days  Phrased as a lecture to his brother  Describes conditionals and life of the lower classes  Gives message to workers who were similar to him  Main message was to work hard and accept your station  The poem is very moralistic  He talks about the faults and problems with women o They cheat, lie and are deceitful o Do not marry out of your class  Warns farmers about the judges and how they are not fair  He attacks the judges themselves and their corrupt ways o Demands that the judges be fair  Very different outlook on conflict and justice than Homer o Homer is more concerned by power, honour of the person o Hesiod is concerned with justice and fairness, much closer to current thinking  Theogony  The Greeks had never asked the question of where did it all come from o Hesiod obtained this from his eastern upbringing  Hesiod was the first Greek to ask questions such as this Textbook Notes (58- 59, 80- 82)  Quote: Hesiod attacks judges and tells them to be fair or the gods will be wrathful (W&D)  Quote: Hesiod talks how work is the path to happiness and to honour (W&D)  Quote: Marry a respectable virgin who will not cause you grief (W&D) Archaic Art and Architecture Protogeometric (1050-900)  Pottery is used extensively because it survives once it is fire o There are almost no bronze statues, few statues and no paintings  Earliest form of pottery found in Greece Geometric (900-750)  Shows some sense of style and artistry  General trend from simple geometric patterns to more complex patterns and shapes  Near the end of the geometric period, humans and animals began to appear on pottery  Dipylon Krater- mixing bowl with a funeral scene on it o Used as a funeral marker o Artist captures the reality of a funeral scene  Action scenes began to appear in the Late Geometric Period Orientalizing Period (720-600)  Greek art begins to resemble eastern art from Persia and Babylonia  The leading art producer was Corinth  Greek art continues to emphasize the human, which differed from eastern art Athenian Black Figure (600-530)  First truly Greek form of pottery o Displaces oriental art  Athens became the art capital of Greece  Black figure pottery is exceedingly durable, as it did not use paint, but clay slips, to make black designs o This was an exceedingly difficult procedure  Red figure evolved from black figure Statue Art (2200-700)  Originally there was no regard for human form  Have religious and decorative purposes Kouros (Kouroi) (600-470)  Series of highly accurate and well made statues  First attempt of realism in art  Used as grave markers instead of pottery, as well as offerings for the gods  Can be very large  Most are nude as Greeks practiced nudity  Idea came from Egyptian culture  First example of art made just for beauty  They disappear as democracy rises into prominence o This leads to the assumption that is was a way for the upper class to show off Kore (Korai) (570-470)  Venus of Willendorf- no sense of realism (20 000 BC)  It took longer for the realism in male statue extended to women  Women eventually began to have some attention paid to their anatomy  Women were always completely clothed, but the emphasis on the clothing decreased over time Treasury of the Siphnians (530)  Not yet classical Greek architecture  A treasury for the gifts to the god Apollo  Columns are beginning to appear, but are not yet the main feature  Frieze- Running series of images along the top of the wall  Pediment- Triangle at the apex of the roof Textbook Notes (63- 66, 86- 91)  Greek Architecture was beginning to resemble the classical style Archaic Greece Polis (poleis)  Institution in which 90 percent of Greeks lived  Greek experience of political life from this time until Alexander the Great  No equivalent  Developed concept of what is human life for  Felt themselves to be superior to others  Called them barbarians because of the way their languages sounded  They thought they were better because they lived in polis, while the barbarians were slaves  Coming out of the Dark Age, small bands of Greeks began to band together to form the original poleis  There was no domination by a certain polis, because there the banding together stopped a certain point, so no dominating polis emerged  An average polis had 5000 citizens, 20000 people and twice the size of London ON, mostly consisting of farmland o The exception was Athens and Sparta, which were huge Barbarian and Greece  Synoecism  Origin of the polis  Meaning ‘A bunch of families coming together’ o They may have come together by choice, by coercion or by force  Almost all of the polis had the same institutions o They almost always had votes of a sort o The measures for vote were put forward by a council of elders  Almost always from the aristocratic class  Put forward persons to lead certain enterprises within the polis o Only allowed to hold power for a one year term o However some differed and had monarchies or theocracies  Outside southern Greece not every area used the polis concept o Those in central, northern Greece and the Peloponnesus also used the ethnos system, which was similar to a large polis, but not centralized Autonomy and Idiosyncrasy  Every polis was completely autonomous  Every Greek their polis was considered to be different in their laws and the laws were followed  They were very proud of the laws that they themselves made  No arbitrary laws or rulings were countenanced  The polis was ‘anti- social’ and did not like to form relationships outside of the polis  There were some purely military defence agreements  ‘The Greeks are free because they are slaves to their own laws’  They refused to add to their own polis  The root of the word ‘idiot’ refers to someone who cares only for themselves  Citizenship was very exclusive, both parents must be from that polis  These were ideals and were sometimes disregarded  The citizen exists to serve the polis, not the other way around  Aristotle ‘man is a political animal’ o He did not see how large poleis could work Development of the Polis  Several factors assisted the development of the polis o Greek mountainous geography o Few rivers to assist in travel o No powerful neighbours to attack and conquer the polis o No local power was interested in Greece  Many sources ascertain that they were punished due to their refusal to band together Polis and Colonization  2 waves of colonization o West (750- 650)- southern Italy, which was very fertile, as well as some parts of France and Spain o East (650- 550) Asia Minor and particularly the Black Sea coast (very fertile)  Population was increasing after the Dark Ages  The Greek way to deal with this was to send people out to colonize other areas o Not driven by expansionist tendencies, but to remove people from a crowded area o Advice was given by those at Pan- Hellenic sanctuaries o Advance scouts were sent out to find a good place to start a colony Economy and Society  There were conflicts between wealthy landowners, farmers, merchants and hoplites o The landowners were gradually taking over all of the good land o This came to a point with the discovery of the phalanx, which was very successful  This meant that the poor were now the ones who won the wars, which meant they wanted more rights and privileges Tyrants (670- 550)  Any person who came to power in a non- traditional way  They tended to have the support of the lower classes  They tended to greatly increase the economy and standard of life of a polis  Generally came from the ruling class  Most tyrants failed to set up a dynasty, as their sons would lack their gifts Textbook Notes (70- 80, 82- 86, 98- 100)  The Archaic period went from 700 to 480 BC  System of oligarchy o Ruled by the aristocrats in positions of power o Archons were the leaders, with other aristocrats holding other positions of power o The boule was the real center of power, consisting of the elder statesmen, with great influence o The power of the assembly was greatly reduced  Poleis created many Greek colonies around the Mediterranean  There was a large discrepancy in the wealth of a polis  The main unit of the army was the hoplite o Bronze armour, iron weapons o Fought in phalanxes o The poor were used as light infantry o The fact that men were side by side tended to remove social graces from the aristocracy  Relations between states began during this time, with alliances forming between poleis  Coinage originated during this time to streamline commerce Women and the Family in Ancient Greece The Parthenos  Means the ‘virgin’ or ‘unmarried girl’  Around 14 years of age  Is a luminal figure (between feminine roles)  Beauty, intelligence, sexual appeal  Menarche was considered to be a dangerous time for women  They were thought to be delusional, have visions, suicidal behaviour  Marriage, sex and motherhood were considered to heal these issues The Greek Wedding  Arranged between women’s father and man  Women married around 14, men married at 30 o Large age hiatus between spouses o Lots of young widows in Ancient Greece  Girl should be a virgin, man is not a virgin  Betrothal was the transaction and negation of the dowry  Divorce and remarriage was very common and socially accepted  The bride wore a white tunic and yellow veil o She was also bathed and perfumed  No formal exchange of vows or liturgy  The bride eventually unveils herself (anakalypteria)  First glance was supposed to be mutually arousing  Pair were conveyed home in a cart/ chariot o The mother of the bride followed with a torch  Mother- in- law met them at the door  The newly wedded couple lived with the groom’s parents  The groom is often shown being pulled by her husband  Weddings are idealized to assuage women’s fears The Wedding Night  Showered with nuts and fruit  Before bed the bride is supposed to eat a quince, and there may have been a cake  The wedding party sang dirty songs outside the house all day  Next day contained visitors, presents and parties Greek Marriage  Bride is known as a nymphe  A wife/ woman is a gyne  Marriage consisted of living together, sexual union and producing children  Marriage can be quit frightening for a young girl  The girl brought cash into the marriage, the man brought land and a house  Duties of a wife o Food preparation o Spinning and weaving o Supervising the care of children o Taking care of the sick and dying Children  Marriage was designed for reproductive purposes  Fertility may have been used before wedding o Many folklore treatments were used to help conceive  During birth midwives were present to help  Childbirth was envisioned as a passive despite observation of contractions  Most births were done without medicine  Very few representations of birth scene in art  The decision whether or not to raise the child was that of the father o Girls were sometimes abandoned due to their lesser worth to the family  Birth of a girl was supposed to be much more difficult for the women  Greeks had a naming day 5-7 days for a boy and 10 for a girl  Door decorations o Either olive leaves or wool  Multiple presents and parties  Infant exposure was common, perhaps more for girls  The Greeks used wet and dry nurses  The children lived normal lives, playing and helping the family  Rich boys normally would attend school Spinning and Weaving  Quintessential activity for woman  Indicates her virtue and dedication to her family Adultery and Divorce  Adultery means sex with a married woman  Women have to have sex with husband  Men could only not have sex with married or citizen other women  Women are allowed to divorce their husband  Adulterous and raped wives were divorced  If an adulterer was caught in the act you could beat or rape the man o You cannot kill him or your wife  Did women find it hard to adhere to moral principles due to lack of time?  Divorce could be initiated by the husband, wife, or wife’s father, unless there are children Textbook Notes (175- 182)  The basis of Greek society is the oikos o Each citizen is primarily a member of his oikos before they are a member of the polis  Quote: It is a man’s job to show his wife how to behave and act in the best interest of the oikos Slavery in Ancient Greece Sources for Ancient Slavery  Both literary and artistic sources are very poor o The main sources were aristocratic males, with ne real experiences with slavery  There are no sources from a slave’s point of view (except perhaps Aesop)  No statistics or prices  No extended discussion or defences of slavery o There were no calls for abolition  Literary sources all casually mention slaves o They are considered to be a normal thing  Often literary sources use conventions and stereotypes of slavery instead of historical information Numbers/ Costs  Slaves made up approx 35% of the Athenian population  It was a true slave society (more than 1/3 slaves in population)  Cost of slaves varied o Based on age, gender, physical condition and capabilities  There were no ethnically Greek slaves  Almost all Athenians had at least 1 slave  Wealthy citizens had between 10 and 20  Slavery in antiquity was not ethnically based Slave Occupations  The mines o Considered to be the lowest level of employment o High death rate o Even the elite authors recognized this  Any slaves worked alongside free people  Manufacturing of goods (weapons, statues, pots)  Public building projects (quarrying, masonry, sculpting or carpentry)\  Domestic service o Females would work as maids, hairdressers or wet nurses o Males would work as waiters, butlers and child- minders  Prostitution and entertainers  Public slaves may have been owned by the polis and have worked on public projects ‘Slaves Living Apart’  Also called ‘wage earning slaves’  Worked in trade and banking as bookkeepers, agent s and managers  Theses slaves lived and worked on their own and made regular payments to their master  Could travel; were indistinguishable from free men  Trusted and independent, they had a much better chance at being set free Rights of Slaves  Slaves were the property of their owners o Could be bought or sold by masters o Could be willed down by masters  Could not legally marry  Could not have sexual relations without their master’s consent  Family members/ children cloud be sold on master’s whim Sport Historical Context  Renaissance and revival: 900- 700 BC  Archaic Age: 700- 490 BC  Greeks were beginning to gain a national identity  Gatherings at Pan-Hellenic sanctuaries: Apollo at Delphi, Zeus at Olympia o These gradually became regular events  First Olympics 776 BC  The circuit (one game a year, Olympics every 4) o Olympics (Zeus at Olympia) o Pythian Games (Apollo at Delphi) o Isthmian: Poseidon in Corinth o Zeus at Nemea  All warfare was stopped for the month of the games Sport and Religion  Athletic festivals did not occur outside religious festivals  Religion was how Greeks organized time Modern Athletes  Are treated as role models o Charles Barkley argued against this Greek Athletes  Only the elite competed in athletics o There were no middle class who had time to train  Only the elite had the luxury of leisure time  No scholarships or sponsorships to help with the cost of training Worship of Success  Only the winner given renown  Athlon= prize  Athletes were worshiped as heroes o Heros- An important dead guy worshipped in his grave  Hero- athletes were an invention of the polis  After their death’s they would be mythologized Hercules  Said to be one on the founders of the Olympic games  Statues in Gymnasia o Athletes often used him as a model  Remarkably wide in appetites and appearances Nudity  All athletics events were held in the nude  It presented divine connotations  Strength, courage and manliness o Spartan ephebes presented naked  Equality and democracy Pure Athletics  No second place  No team sports  No subjective judging  Penalties for fouling an opponent was flogging  Arete – Excellence, manliness, virtue  Pindar was a sports writer  In the 5 and 4 centuries the Greeks were constantly threatened with war and as such, wanted to leave their mark on the world Ancient Sports  Foot Races (Stade) o 210 yards o Most prestigious event  Wrestling  Boxing o Wore leather hand things to make contact harder  Pankration o Viscous combination of boxing and wrestling  Horse Racing o The win went the owner/ trainer, not the driver  Pentathlon o Consists of 5 events  Stade  Long jump  Wrestling  Discus  Javelin Archaic Lyric Poetry Lyric poetry is a poem that is sung to the accompaniment of a lyre. Lyric poetry was the next evolution of epic poetry. A poem is a story that is written in the only way possible. It cannot be reduced or changed without losing something. The earliest Lyric poems originated in the Ionian, as they first had contact with the East, where the idea originated. Differences between Epic and Lyric  Performance o Lyric poetry was performed at intimate dinner parties o Epic poetry was a public event  Content (eroticon) o Epic poetry were long, and about epic events o Lyric poems were personal and tended to be very short (20 lines)  Tone o Epic poetry was a flat description o Lyric poetry was an emphatic, personal and contained intense emotion o Lyric commentary often included social commentary  Composers o Bards were low class o Lyric composers were almost all aristocrats  Only they had the time to compose and practice Fragmentary  Most of the poems have been lost  The poems were almost never written down o This would have been considered to be below the aristocrats  Many of the poems are fragmented Archilochus of Paros  fl. c. 630  His treatment of war is that it is not very important  He is reviled by the Spartans  He made fun of generals who are pompous  Neobule o Girl that he almost married, and then dumped and scorned her Theognis of Megara  Fl. c. 620  Poem written for young gay lover Sappho of Lesbos  Fl. c. 620  She had parents, three brothers, husband and daughter  She ran a school for young women on arts and being a good wife  Many poems are written about young women she loved  She is the basis for the word ‘lesbian’  Sappho was the first to write about love as a the primary emotion and as an all consuming emotion  Invented word ‘bittersweet’  Plato considered her to be the ‘only’ poet Other poets  Xenophanes o Made fun of the elite in his town that wore purple cloaks and perfume  Hipponax o Adopted the persona of a street brawler  Pholcylides o A Hesiod- like mentality o Created many homespun maxims  Mimnermus o Created poetry about love and lust o Wrote about both homo- and heterosexual health  Ibycus o Wrote long choral poems on traditional mythological and epic themes o Most famous for his homoerotic poetry The Pre-Socratic Philosophers Pythagoras  Many talents and attributes, not just a philosopher  He taught by talking in marketplaces  Rarely wrote stuff down  His doctrine contained mysticism, political theory, cosmology and mathematics  Taught that arithmetic was the key to the universe Philosopher  Started in the East o Moved to Greece and began to transform Arche  Main question; what is the ultimate nature of reality o Assumed there must be one basic structure that everything comes from Materialists (Milesians)  Thales (Fl. c. 600): water is the building block of matter o Based on discovery of fish bones on mountain, assumed Earth used to be water  Anaximenes- (Fl. c. 530)- believed air was the building block of matter o Water and fire create air  Heraclitus (Fl. c. 500)- believed fire is the building block of matter o Fire changes everything  Xenophanes (Fl. c. 550)- understood there was no way of knowing  Materialists were the first to argue that the universe is comprehensible  Human reason leads to us wanting answers  Believed that the human brain could understand everything Formalists  Pythagoras (c. 580- 500) o Leader of the Pythagoreans o Musician and mathematician  Believed in the connection between the two  Music was made of intervals and numbers o Drop pattern o Believed in the harmony of the heavenly spheres  All of universe is made of numbers  Parmenides of Elea o What exists and what does not? o Believed that the universe was unchangeable and that any perceived changes were figments of imagination, since any change would destroy the universe  Heraclitus of Ephesus o `The Obscure` o Parmenides made a mistake  Being is change o Change always occurs  You can never step in the same river twice o Logos- what governs change o Makes assumptions based on connections  i.e. If apples and oranges are both fruits, apples are fruit o We lie to ourselves assuming no change happens o We simplify things Later Presocratics  Empedocles (c.490-430) o 4 elements: fire, air, water, earth  Democritus (c.460-380) o A-tom (can`t cut)  Can`t get rid of them  Never have fractions Reaction against the Presocratics  Vain- how does this affect my life  Trivial- people wanted answers to pertinent questions Sparta  Between 700 and 350, Sparta and Athens were the two most powerful polis  Based out of Laconia Spartan Constitution  Dual monarchy  30 elders o Served for life  Popular Assembly o Met once a month o Issues were decided by screaming matches  5 Ephors o Only unusual part of Spartan constitution o Elected every year to make sure no Spartan acted in a bad manner o Could remove people from all positions of power Messene  Claimed that they were the descendants of Hercules, that returned to Greece after being exiled  Four settlements banded together to become Sparta  Only colonized once, instead took the land of others around them o Only Greeks to do this o Made the inhabitants helots and made them subjects of Spartan men o This strategy worked well and the population began to explode o They were the largest and richest of the pelisse o Forced conquered inhabitants to work for them  1st Messenian War (730-700) o Messenians outnumbered them and decided to revolt  Messenian Revolt (640) o Sparta was at war with a neighbour, and the helots took this opportunity to revolt o Almost succeeded, but the Spartans won out o Brought about Lycurgus  After the conquest of Messene and Laconia they were the largest Greek polis o The Messenians were enslaved as helots or perioikoi  Helots were basically slaves of the state, subject to severe restrictions and were force to work for the Spartans  Perioikoi were the traders of the Spartans, and were had more freedom than the helots  The helots and perioikoi made up almost the entire population of Laconia  The revolts forced the Spartans to change their society so that they could maximize their efficiency in war Lycurgus  Lycurgus may or may not have existed  There were two main goals of the Spartan system o Freeing male citizens from all but military obligations o Socializing males so that they accepted the discipline needed to be a Spartan soldier  All of the polis was to be set on their only goal of controlling others  Military training was the only purpose of the Spartan male  All cultural works stopped, such writing and art  Xenophobic o No contact with outside world occurred  Homoioi – everyone was exactly the same as every other Spartan  No concept of private ownership, similar to communism o When a man died, his property reverted back to the state to be redistributed to a young Spartan  Had no ability to change and evolve their goals and society  Sparta was ruled by a dual kingship, with the support of the gerousia (council of elders) o The ephors oversaw all aspects of the economy and society and helped to uphold the kingship, including the krypteria (secret police) o The assembly also played a role in determining certain decisions within the community Spartan Men  The only purpose of Spartan men was to be professional soldiers  If a young Spartan boy was deformed, they were exposed by the state at birth  At the age of 7, you were taken from your parents and taught to be tough and resilient through a variety of hardships o They went without shoes, with low rations and slept outside on rough mats o Spartans were trained to fight year- round o Punishment for failure was severe o  At the age of 14, military training begins until the age of 30  At the age of 20, you may be assigned a wife, who you are only allowed to see to have sex at nights o You are also accepted into your syssition(mess) at this point  At the age of 30, you may move out of the barracks into a home with your family  If you failed in any physiological failure, you were labelled a trembler and you would be humiliated  Homosexuality was a part of life in that an accomplished warrior would have several young boys that admired and were enamoured of him o Homosexuality was not a social stigma it was now  There was a chronic shortage of Spartan men o Spartans were trained not to surrender, but to die o Many Spartan boys were killed at birth o This caused the Spartan male population to slowly decline throughout the classical period Spartan Women  Were encourage to be athletic and also went through the same process as boys in some respects o This was thought to increase the chances of good offspring  The only responsibility of a Spartan woman was to bear children  There was specific education designed for girls at different stage of their life  Other Greeks found this to be the most preposterous part of Spartan society  Women were a large part of society and handled important jobs o Other Greeks found this to be the most preposterous part of Spartan society  Very high proportion of women to men o Population of men continued to shrink  Married couples would not live together for the first 10 years o They would only have sex in secret at night o Marriage may have been chosen by chance Peloponnesian League  The Spartan mystique was so great that they were able to form the Peloponnesian League o Every polis except Argos joined o Every other polis would defend an ally in the event of an outside attack  The league was involved in the determination of member policy, with Sparta being in overall control  World’s first professional army o Never lost a battle o Would retreat, but lose no men o If the Spartans were victorious, they would massacre their enemies o Massive amount of prestige and power Athens Athens in the Bronze and Dark ages  Athens was a large center during the Mycenaean era  Athens was never completely destroyed during the Dark ages  Athens did not establish a lot of colonies  Athens considered themselves to be aboriginal  Attica o Area around Athens o All of Attica became part of Athens polis o The unification was ascribed to Theseus  Most things in Athens were decided by aristocrats o The three original were the main archon, the basileus, the polemarch o These were followed by six thesmothetai  The archons worked in concert with an assembly  Athenians were divided into tribes and brotherhoods Failed coup of Cylon (c. 632)  Cylon tried to use his fame to change the way the Athenian democracy worked  Attempted to become a tyrant Constitution of Athens  9 Archons o Executers of the laws o Similar to a cabinet without a leader  Council (boule) of the Areopagus o Mainly elders who advised the rulers, as well as made recommendations  Popular Assembly  Draco made the laws extremely harsh and unforgiving Solon: reworks constitution (594)  For a long time a small family of aristocrats made themselves the virtual ruling family of Athens o This caused a large amount of discord with some of the richer and powerful other families  Solon was chosen to change the constitution in order to make the polis system work o He left after so as to not be beset by others wishing him to change his constitution o He made a series of alliances so that Athens could trade freely in order to get more grain o Encouraged immigration from other polis o Created first Athenian currency o Ordered that
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