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Classical studies Midterm Review

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
David Lamari

Five Ages of Greece 1. 3000-1200 BC : Bronze Age 2. 1200-750 BC : Iron/Dark Age 3. 750-480 BC : Archaic Age 4. 480-323 BC : The Classical Age 5. 323-31 BC : The Hellenistic Age Minoans 3000-1000 -merchant society -king Minos, Knossos, Minotaur -architecture agglutinative – stuck together, partitions to change rooms easily, fluid, no defensive = confusing layout or no conflict? -society run by palace, centralized government, promotes civilization, distribution of labour -no minerals, bad soil > dependent on trading and going out to find materials -Linear A : syllable based, non-Indo-European -Bronze Age Art: religious/iconic, Bull Leapers (bulls were important symbol), marine art depictions, throne rooms very outlandish, playful art, -symbols: double axe, gold sheet, bulls, marine -earthquake or something caused chaos and Mycenaean got them while they were down Mycenaean’s 1600-1100 -German architect first dug at Mycenae (mentioned in Homer) and found large grave circles “tholos” honeycomb shaped and found bodies with objects made of gold sheet -Cyclopean masonry: blocks so big and heavy, how? -Linear B: Indo-European, early form of Greek, recorded exchanges -King, leader of army, lords, knights, craftsmen, slaves, 2 provinces, 7 districts, many smaller communes within -Basileus: top laborer -weren’t merchant like -strong defense allowed open concept palace -On Crete (1400-1200): took over Minoan culture, absorbed the culture -art objects found mostly on Greece mainland but also Crete: Mask of Agamemnon, gold face impressions, crystal/ceremonial daggers, frescoes present war like scenes -symbols: lions, war -Chaos 1200-1100: Myc over fortifying by now, palaces left, invasion by Dorian’s (seas people), lack of trade, semi-nomadic Dark Ages 1200-750 -Mycenaean collapses -iron age, develop process of using iron -no contact with outside world, no trade, lack of technology, limited artifacts -population down 66% c. 750 Beginnings of Civilization -small communities growing an merging together but rarely over population of 1000 -remaining semi-autonomous -great empires in broad flat areas opposed to few rivers and mountainous lands -epic poems: grand tone, content about gods/heroes, first type of literature preserved, preliterate (fixed rhythms), oral communication important Homer -blind bard from Ionia -1. Education: things children ought to know, morals, cornerstone of how to educate -2. Culture: paintings of battles he talked about, great singers singing his songs, -3. Morality: Greeks settle arguments by quoting Homer -no evidence before Homer, but is he truthful. Mix up of times (languages/events), collage of poems -The Homeric World: honor, respect, shame, value, self-esteem, culturally meaningful, live life fullest. -Iliad: 16 000 lines, about one year of Trojan war, Anger of Achilles, anger motivates, unity of design, see through particular to universal. -The Odyssey: Odysseus’ journey home (10 years), a comment on socialized living, complex and revolves upon character, suffering/intelligence/restraint. -Sublime: thing that takes you beyond yourself, love of the beautiful -Formulae: memorable phrases or longer passages aiding in memory and improvisation Religion -no one official Greek belief system -Polytheism: [Olympians, Spirits, Heroes, Ancestors, Ghosts] very much of our world, Orthodoxy = how to correctly believe, Orthopraxy = correct behaviour, Gods not designed to give comfort, no distinction between magic and religion -Eleusinian Mysteries: out of body, secret, very popular, sworn not to tell’ -Dionysus: only women, about purity, cleansing rituals -Hesiod (c. 700): Theogony -birth of everything/Gods, came from Asia Minor, 9 goddesses gave truth. -First philosophers came from Asia Minor, closest to earlier civilizations like Babylon and Egypt Archaic Greece -c. 750 real Greek cultures surfaces -pockets of communities because of geography -not much conflict because too much hassle to attack -colonization: moving people away, internal conflict resolution, send away because of conflict or over population Polis built on acropolis and people lived in surrounding farmland -Polis whole thing, city of Athens different from polis of Athens -ruler called a Basileus -~5000 citizens -synoecism: process of bringing smaller villages together to form Polis -Oligarchy: ruled by few people consisted of – the assembly of the people, a council of elders -exclusivity of the polis: must have at least one blood parent from there, don’t want to merge, each have unique customs/money -want each person to play significant role Late Archaic Period -more conflict -rise of Tyrants (670-500) The Oikos -household of male and his approved bloodline, father must be citizen for you to be one -Status of Women: had “Kyreios” = guardian, and “epikeros” = man she remarries to continue on land, primary role to produce legit children, little responsibility outside of home in upper classes, Porne = M or F prostitute, Hetaira = mistress, >3 stages of woman’s life – 1. Parthenos: virgin, ready for marriage , 2. Nymphe: once married without kids , 3. Gyne: once provide children (spinning and weaving), female seclusion area away from men. -Andron: room for the men -townhouse like structure, red / monochrome walls. -marriage: arranged by men, only men could divorce or father of bride, business arrangement, Marriage Pledge = produce healthy legit children Slavery -only mention slavery in passing, nothing written -assumed almost everyone had at least one slave, up to 10, but 50 max -society is slave driven -occupations: mining, manufacture, public building, domestic, prostitute/entertainer, public slaves/police, trade and banking (skill
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