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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
David Lamari

Greek and Roman Civilization 2013-11-04 7:04 PM 430 BC/430 BCE AD 430/430 CE st nd 100-1 ▯1 century BC 1-100 ▯ 2 century AD Ages of Greek History 3000- 1200 BC : Bronze age 1200-750 BC: Iron/dark age (develop iron) 750-480 BC: Archaic age 480-323 BC: The classical age 323-31 BC: The Hellenistic age Primary and Secondary Sources Primary- any sources from the ancient world (ex. Tool, literature, pottery) Secondary- people after this period have to say about these primary sources “Prehistoric” Greece 40,000-750 BC • Palaeolithic Era (500,000-10,000 BC) • Mesolithic Era (10,000- 7000 BC) • Neolithic Era (7000-3000 BC) o Agricultural revolution • Bronze age (3000-1200 BC) o Called the bronze age because they started to use tools containing a mixture of copper and iron (separated from the stone age) o An advance in the tools being used by workers to produce things (more productive) o Ex. For agriculture- tools were made with the new found bronze o Started to create a sense of property to civilians because they put work into their land▯ therefore creating marriage and families because they want an heir to hand their land off to • Hunter/gatherers vs. farmers o Originally it was thought that people should eat whole foods – no processed food like flour o After the bronze age people thought we were meant to live more leisurely▯ better food o Eras were defined by the tools used not by literature The Minoans (3000-1400 BC) • Lived on an island in Greece • Non-Greeks but are neighbors ▯ were there before the Greeks • The Greek myth of Crete: o Minos- powerful king (non Greek), huge palace in Knossos, power came by see, ruled over see (Thalassocracy) ▯ He demanded that the Greeks (in Athens) give him as a gift 14 of their children every year ▯ This was to show his power and feed his need for a half man half bull (the minotaur) ▯ The minotaur was hid in the labyrinth (the son his wife had with a bull) ▯ Fed the children to the minotaur ▯ One prince of Athens wanted to go but the daughter of king Minos fell in love with him • Value of this myth: shows leap from being hunter/gatherers to farmers • British archeologist from late 1800’s searched for this place and found a palace that was 3.2 acres and 3 stories • This building was agglutinative (historically significant) o Had an original building that had additional building built on after the years went on o No defense▯ theories: ▯ No conflict ▯ Confident in kings navel power they would see no threat by other palaces • These events may have not had happened but are historically significant Minoan Crete (3000-1000 BC) • Crete connects w/ Near East c. 1800 ▯ trading abroad • C. 1750, palaces damaged and Crete unified (same style of buildings) ▯ from volcano or earthquakes, though to be caused by some war • C. 1400, most Minoan palaces burned▯ caused by invaders or earthquake • PALACE CULTURE: o Centralized gov. ▯ A divine king is set up and is a dictator ▯ Tells where to live, what to make, collects goods, and distributes ▯ Everything happens at the palace besides religious ceremonies o Promotes civilization ▯ Looks at each persons qualities and abilities and assigns them to appropriate jobs ▯ Distribution of labour ▯ Creating new crafts, skills, and tech. o Mercantile o Sophisticated agriculture • Minoan Vulnerability o Crete was different from surrounding areas was because it was not a fertile land with raw materials o Mercantile society (vulnerable) o Prosperity was dependent on buying a selling of goods▯ middle man of bronze age • The Minoan Mystery: ‘Linear A’ o Most likely will never translate because its Non-indo-european ▯ Most non-indo… have died out ▯ We don’t know what the constantans are meant to represent • Pillar door partitions (create artificial/smaller rooms) o Creates disorienting effect because rooms were always being created and then tore down • Typical bronze age art o More lavish and sophisticated art than rest of surroundings ▯ Bull leapers▯ thought to be a game or religious ceremony ▯ Bull is of importance to society ▯ Marine art ▯ Throne room ▯ Frescoes ▯ All white skinned ▯ caused huge debate • Showed upper class and divinity of white people • Dark skinned are workers because they work outside in the fields ▯ Snake goddess ▯ May thought to be a sacrifice in accordance to their religion ▯ Double axes ▯ Made with gold paper Myncenaeans (1600-1100 BC) • Growing power/culture arising on mainland Greece • Found by German archeologist • Dug around places around Homer’s literature • Mycenae is not the capital • Do have defensive walls • Story of Helen of Troy o Found palaces on mainland Greece o Great city in place of Troy • At Mycenae o Grave circles ▯buried dead underground (richest and most important people were buried here) ▯ 2-5 people per grave shaft o Their image was the lion o Tholos tombs ▯ More grand than the grave circles ▯ Above ground ▯ Usually right inside a hill ▯ Shows a big shift in the culture ▯ Cyclopean masonry ▯ Assumed they had Cyclops to move these massive rocks • ‘Linear B’ o Indo-European o Consonantal o Found names of Greek gods and other Greek words o Showed us about the society ▯ Had: ▯ King ▯ Leader of the army ▯ Lords ▯ Knights ▯ Craftsmen and slaves ▯ 2 provinces ▯ 7 districts ▯ many “communes” ▯ Basileus ▯ people who were in charge of the communes (top laborer) • They weren’t mercantile people • Thought that they were pirates • Trading being done through Greece • Power was dominating the Greeks ▯ non Greek power dominated • Mycenaean Palaces (c. 1450 f.5) o Have colossal defensive walls (unlike Minoan) o Preferred more open spaces Mycenaean Crete (1400-1200) • After destruction of Crete they start to resemble the palaces in Mycenaean Greece • Thought that there was an earthquake that damaged the Minoans and then the Mycenaean’s took over Crete (Mycenaean’s absorb Minoans) • Crete is dominated by Greek speaking people General Chaos (1200-1100) o systems collapse o start fortifying palaces because of threat of Mycenaean’s migrating to their palace • Mycenaean’s disappear • Thought to be by natural disasters ▯ not a large enough fighting force at this time • Population drops by 2/3 ▯ migrate elsewhere • Enter dark ages ▯ lack of literacy, goods, ect • hb • Sea peoples- tried to invade Egypt • The Dorians- tried to invade Greece • Possible disruption of trade routes The Dorians and Ionians • Theory by the Greeks▯ wrong • Thought that Mycenaean’s migrated to Asia Minor (Turkey) o These people were called Ionians and Aeolians (descendants of the kings) • Dorians (dark skinned people) invaded southern Greece and Crete o Thoughts to be descendants of Hercules • Alternant theory that Dorians never invaded and Mycenaean’s took over their land, and Dorians were always there (slaves to Mycenaeans) until their masters left Mycenaeans Graves • Made death masts for their leaders to preserve their bodies o ‘The mask of Agamemnon’ • ceremonial daggers- with lions depicted on metal • armor • depictions war chariots • Frescoes ▯ war was more present within the dark skinned culture unlike Mycenaeans Dark age (1200-750) • No contact with outside world • Limited artifacts • Limited luxury • Loss of technology • Population down 66% (2/3) • Iron age o One advance o Created from iron ore • Geography when emerging from dark ages: o Conquer and absorb colonies o And when they get to a certain size they stop and end making alliances o Lots of medium sized communities that are self ruled and self sufficient o Mountainous ▯ Difficult for contact b/w communities o Few rivers ▯ Cant navigate through mountains o Poor land ▯ Bad farm land o Mediterranean triad ▯ Grapes and wine ▯ Olives and olive oil ▯ Oatmeal 2013-11-04 7:04 PM Homer: The Iliad and the Odyssey • Greatest of primary sources • Homer educates the Greeks • Epic poetry and preliterate o Grand tone o Epic in content – gods, heroes, great lords o First kind of literature society preserves o Convey important cultural moments ▯ Illiterate culture ▯ use of poems • Importance of Homer: o Central to Greek education ▯ Homer is full of things that Greeks are ought to know ▯ Corner stone of the way they educate young children o Culture ▯ Plays are based on Homer o Morality ▯ If 2 Greeks are having and argument they will settle it with lines of homer (“like YOLO”) • Iliad and Odyssey o 16000 and 12000 lines o Trojan war (c. 1200 BC) ▯ Lead by ▯ Invasion of city of troy by infamous king to win back brothers wife (Helen) ▯ Homer only presents a snap shot of the story o Later Greeks and Homer ▯ Blind bard from the 8 th ▯ Trojan war a historical event o Iliad: ▯ A story about one year of fighting o Odyssey: ▯ One of the heroes trying to get home after war • The Homeric question o You must ask yourself as a scholar is this representing the actual culture of that time? o Can we use homer as evidence for that time period? ▯ Difficult to use it because some things are right and something’s are wrong (facts are correct ▯ making people do things that couldn’t happen till a time period much later on) ▯ Know what he is describing did actually happen, but we do not know when • Fragmented form o Poems are patched together o Erratic and confusing • Coherent content o Themes, depictions of heroes are coherent o Achilles anger poem depicts the theme of anger throughout the poem • Oral bards o Singers who lived in Europe ▯ sing epic songs ▯ Almost all of them are illiterate ▯ improvised▯ made up lyrics as they went along ▯ Certain high point and they could hit them ▯ Made up words (but stuck to a story) ▯ Important because they have a store house of things they have heard from other artists/people or things they have personally sung before • Take fragments of lines and put them into your song ▯ Homer has listened to all of these bards and that is why his poems are full of contradictions, different time periods, ect ▯ He is at the period when writing becomes popular and practical ▯ good timing for him ▯ His poems were so good he shut down the bards • Singers came about who sung homers poems • The Homeric World: o Homers pace is slow, they are written and self sustaining, no appeal to the listener, half of the value of these poems is the tradition ▯culturally meaningful o A world that revolves around your name and having people recognize your greatness o A world in which humans sate their life on: ▯ Honour, respect, shame ▯ Value or self esteem ▯ People want to be the best, motivated by self worth ▯ Self-worth through competition ▯ People want to be better than everyone else o His heroes make the most of life because they know there is nothing else waiting at the end of their life o Achilles refuses to fight for Agamemnon because he took away his slave girl ▯ even though fighting is his ‘glory’ • The Anger of Achilles o Patroclus ▯ Refuses to fight and as a result his best friend dies ▯ Patroclus wears Achilles armor and dies in battle ▯ Anger becomes even greater ▯ Starts fighting against the gods ▯ Kills Hector who killed Patroclus ▯ leaves Hectors body to rot o Priam ▯ Father of hector sneaks into Achilles tent and begs for sons body back ▯ Both weep and he gives body back ▯ Brings Achilles back to the human world ▯ Achilles is what all Greeks should strive to be • Unity of Design o A world entirely dominated by worth o Respect of one another is based on worth of the person ▯ Example in the Iliad: ▯ father begs for daughter back from king Agamemnon • King refuses because he is of a higher rank than the father • Father is a priest and prays to Apollo that since he has given Apollo so many gifts in return he could give his daughter back • God gets upset that king steals daughter of his priest • The Odyssey o Odysseus’ journey home ▯ Takes 10 years ▯ War of troy takes 10 years (Iliad only tells about 1 year) ▯ More of an adventure story ▯ A story of a return home to save his wife and child from being mistreated ▯ On way home he is blown by storms ▯ On way home he sees other different cultures and realizes what his home is ▯ Blown to a land of the lotus eaters ▯ Eat lotus plant and be happy and accomplish nothing because they forget everything ▯ Some of his sailors take part of this and want to stay ▯ Homeric civilized living is competitive, your value is based on social interactions ▯ The story of the cycolopse ▯ A lot of commentary on socialized living • Greek love of Beauty o the “sublime” ▯ “Beauty is truth, truth beauty—that is all ye know on earth, and all ye need to know” John Keats ▯ Achilles is beautiful- killing machine that is beautiful, Helen is as well ▯ They are both beautiful even though they do bad things ▯ Greek culture is marked by a celebration of beauty ▯ This is why they like art because it is beautiful ▯ Greek word extosis- you lose control of yourself because of this beautiful thing • Hesiod and Greek Religion and Myth o Religion- how are they interacting with the gods o Greek communities were fragmented ▯ Pockets of communities ▯ Never an entity that was “Greece” ▯ No orthodox official Greek church ▯ Greeks found no need to seek out no definitive truth ▯ Instead they had lots of myths ▯ They capture certain behaviours/problems in a definitive way ▯ Never occurred to Greeks about whether myths were true or not • Did not want to question the myths ▯ Don’t have one sanctioned set of myths • Polytheism o Olympians ▯ Dwell on mount Olympus o Spirits ▯ Believed that many things had spirits o Heroes ▯ Someone who has died and has a supernatural presence o Ancestors ▯ o Ghosts In this religion you wont find a purely evil/good god/evil, gods are like humans they just want honour and respect ▯ Religious festivities would be athletics, drinking wine, ect (anything to do with life) ▯ like a town fair • Religion and Magic o Orthodoxy and Orthopraxy ▯ Orthodoxy ▯ means correct belief ▯ Whatever the church believes you must believe the same way ▯ Orthopraxy ▯ means correct behaviour ▯ Care about how you behave not what you belive in , ex. Giving the correct gifts, ect ▯ Bc Greek gods are like humans people don’t look to the gods or priests for higher or ethical moral guidance ▯ Humans had to figure those things out themselves ▯ Asked gods for help with a good crop, or and illness, ect ▯ “I will to this to honour you, and in return can you do this for me” ▯ sometimes a sacrifice would be needed to one of the gods in order to get what they wanted ▯ the gods don’t do things out of the kindness of their hearts • Ecstatic and Mystery Religions o Eleusinian Mysteries ▯ Greeks would go from cities to country side to meet together to spy on secret practices (secret religions▯ followers sworn not to tell beliefs/practices) and learn about them o Dionysus ▯ Only women were allowed to go ▯ Men didn’t know what was happening ▯ Being a member of these religions will make you pure ▯ These religions promised more ▯ You will become in contact with a god • Become one, eat them, make love with them • Took a long period of time ▯ initiated level by level • Hesiod (c. 700), Theogony o About 50 years after Homer o Coming out of the dark ages o In archaic age o Write about how he was turned into a poet o Came from Asia minor and that the Goddesses called the muses came and revealed him the truth ▯ They told him where the cosmos and everything came from ▯ Inspired by the musses to write the theogony ▯ Not all Greeks agree with this, homer tells a different story ▯ This religious book asks a very sophisticated question: ▯ Where did everything come from ▯ cosmology ▯ Almost everything Greek arose from Asia minor ▯ “Greek culture is a woman constantly impregnated by other cultures” o Earth and sky had many children o Night came from heaven and earth ▯ from night came her many children – death, sleep, dreams, trickery, lust, and doom 2013-11-04 7:04 PM Archaic Period- find real evidence of aspects of Greek culture flourishing geography ▯ reason why the population was dispersed into pockets - people don’t want to attack because the land is so poor Renaissance 900-750 BC • Phoenician trade o Linked Greeks to more durable part of Mediterranean (came out of dark ages quicker) • Greek alphabet developed in this period o Not like linear A/B • Ionia (coast of Asia minor) and Asia minor is pulling the Greeks into a world of knowing (a civilization) o Showing them new things Colonization (not expansionist) • Increase in population ▯ greeks encounter problem with over population • Colonization: o In reaction to internal problems: ▯ Over population ▯ Internal conflicts ▯ certain people must form new colony because of conflict of interest b/w groups of people ▯ Moved as far as Spain, southern Italy, to around black sea, and down to northern Africa ▯ Not allowed to come back once they have left ▯ Creating a web of colonies to get rid of unwanted people or because of conflict of interest ▯ Colonies else where prospered because land was better elsewhere other than Greece ▯ Relocated to costal sites ▯ maintain trade ▯ Retain their own culture ▯ contain same buildings ▯ Don’t absorb new culture of new home place • 2 waves: o West (750-650) o East (650-550) th 8 Cent. Greek Society & Culture • Basileus o Ruler of the community o Not all communities have one o He’s a “king” ▯ leader of the community; “manager of a community” ▯ But still needs consent of all leading citizens in community ▯ Input received ▯ makes decision based on input o In Mycenaean world▯ he was the top laborer (not a very high position) o In new Greek world it became a title of honour • Greek community o Typical: ▯ has an acropolis ▯ high place/ center, contains temples ▯ main/ center of ▯ People lived clustered around the acropolis in farms • Pan-Hellenism o Before they called themselves Greeks, they referred to themselves as Hellenes o Means “all the Greeks” o Greek colonies partake in these activities/festivities ▯ All come together ▯ Olympics was one of these festivities ▯ And the Oracle at Delphi ▯ listen to this ‘woman’ ▯ Experience other Greek cultures during this festivity ARCHAIC GREECE (800-490 BC) • The Polis (Poleis) o Institution in which almost all Greeks lived under (from about 750/800-323▯ death of Alexander the great) o Doesn’t mean city or country o All greeks have struggle in trying to figure out what the purpose in life is ▯ Polis helped you fulfill this ▯ Mechanism for Greeks to achieve this o Naming of Polis: called all the land by one name, central city had a different name; some just named everything the same thing (ex. Athens-city, or the Polis of Athens) o not every Greek community was a Polis o Barbarians ▯ If you weren’t part of the polis you were barbaric o Free vs. Slave ▯ People who lived in polis were free, if didn’t you were a slave/ slave-like o Small and numerous ▯ 5, 000 male citizens per community ▯ cap on the size ▯ approx 30, 000 per colony (1/2 the size of London▯ in respect to land(including buildings, farms, fields)) ▯ synoecism ▯ the bringing together of small communities to form a polis ▯ used myths of homer to create an allegiance to their new polis ▯ story that some god/hero founded their polis ▯ welding different families into one large polis ▯ Oligarchy and the council ▯ Almost all don’t have a king but have oligarchy (leadership by small # of people▯ respected elders) • Autonomy of the Polis o Law and Custom, Justice, Obedience ▯ Different from other places because they are free (Polis) ▯ King was expected to abide by the laws▯ not above the law ▯ Adherence to Polis ▯ Create own laws and remain obedient to own laws o The ‘Anti-social’ Polis ▯ The Greeks do not alliance together ▯ Don’t support immigration of other peoples ▯ Help each other out if in need but don’t band together ▯ Citizens don’t want to be in a larger community because they feel that their importance would be lost o Exclusively of the Polis ▯ Citizenship (idiot) ▯ In most Polis at least one or both of your parents had to be of that Polis in order for you to be a citizen ▯ Expected to devote yourself to the polis ▯ pressure to do so ▯ Idiot- keeps to themselves and don’t contribute to the polis ▯ “man is a political animal” ▯ words of Aristotle ▯ man is an animal who thrives in a polis ▯ can live in a dictatorship ▯ but don’t live up to potential ▯ want to belong to a ‘pack’ o did not want to unify Polis ▯ didn’t want to amalgamate because of fear of large communities o Greeks thought being in a Polis was vital to growing up and being a human being • Factors Assisting the Polis o Geography o Few powerful neighbours o Pan-Hellenism▯ in spite differences the Greeks still came together • Wealth and War o Smaller extremes of wealth ▯ Made it easier for people to come together because no one was of higher rank because of wealth o Hoplites and the phalanx ▯ Foot soldiers▯ hoplites ▯ Fight in formation of ▯ phalanx ▯ Stand side by side w/ shields overlapping ▯ Effective fighting force ▯ Not a lot of armor ▯ Main protection is shield and person on either side po ▯ of you ▯ Fairly inexpensive armor ▯ Almost every citizen could afford the armor • All citizens could be valued and matter to the community • Tyrants (670-500) o Someone who achieved and held power in an unconventional way o Rose to power in a dramatic and unusual method o If Polis was frustrated with ruler or the Polis was in trouble (debt) they would chose someone to become ruler instead ▯ Automatically came into power ▯ Storm in and take over immediately ▯ Could come in a do what they want ▯ Would attempt to remain in power and make children new tyrants (did not happen often) ▯ Sweep to power and create drastic changes ▯ A REFORMER • Structure of a Polis o Little bureaucracy ▯ Most of important decisions are made by state officials o Little revenue o Governance ▯ The assembly of the people ▯ Make voice known on certain issues ▯ A council of elders ▯ Listen to what people are saying ▯ Elders don’t have to listen to what people are saying ▯ Make own decisions based on opinion and opinion of citizens ▯ Expected to be obedient to customs, laws, ect ▯ Elders chosen as leaders ▯ Chosen by people Archaic Oikos Slavery • The Oikos o Means household (family, slaves, property) o Only way to inherit household is to be a male son of the father of the household o An Oikos: legitimate citizen of the father of the household, running a household o Greek Citizenship ▯ Aristotle claims that ‘all barbarians, slaves, children and women are similar’ ▯ Have no rights ▯ Thought they ought to not be citizens because they cant rule themselves ▯ Barbarians ▯ Non-Greek speaker ▯ Had only limited rights but could live there temporarily ▯ Metics ▯ Greek speaking ▯ Not a full citizen ▯ Limited rights ▯ Slaves also cant have full rights o Status of women ▯ Source analysis ▯ Men run everything ▯ write about the history ▯ Don’t provide us much info about slaves, women, children ▯ Suspicious of ancient sources because of male perspective and little info is given ▯ Legal status of women ▯ Aren’t citizens w/ respect to they cant vote ▯ Women always have to have a guardian(Kyreios) • father/husband (Epikleros)(depending on if married) • Next of kin • Or state provides them with a custodial agent ▯ If husband dies and there is no family to take over the land, the woman becomes part of the property and the nearest family member is forced to remarry the widow to continue that blood line ▯ The culturally assigned role of women ▯ Transmits bloodline • To provide legitimate children ▯ Required by society to maintain purity • No affairs allowed • Cant allow a male visitor into house w/o husband there ▯ Losing virginity was a great disgrace ▯ Run the household ▯ conduct ceremonies ▯ Responsibilities outside the home ▯ Men think women are untrustworthy so they don’t want them to leave the house ▯ They think they ‘lack self control’ ▯ Porne and Hetaira ▯ Lived in cities ▯ Either non-citizens (metics), were slaves or citizen women from very poor families ▯ Porne: prostitute ▯ Hetaria: Mistress of a male citizen • No restriction put on a man for adultery▯ unlike women • Was an acceptable and respectable career • Often spoken in poetry about the mistresses▯ love poems to them • Known to be intelligent o Idealist women ▯ Educated, pretty, gifted in philosophy ▯ Men often mentally profited from the smart ideas of Hetaria o 3 stages of a Women’s life 1. Parthenos ▯ virgin ready for marriage (14/15) o Kept away o Body was covered o Secluded from society o They are desired by men because they don’t know what is underneath the clothing o A lot of sexual appeal o Many instances of courtship o Artwork ▯ women seen juggling 2. The Greek wedding o Transaction b/w father and groom o Dowry given by father to the man for compensation for taking his daughter o The vows are simple ▯ father states that he gives his daughter to give him legitimate children ▯ Eros is present in all of this (like cup
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