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Midterm #2 to Midterm #3.pdf
Midterm #2 to Midterm #3.pdf

54 Pages
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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
David Lamari

Roman Prehistory 2014-01-20 6:53 PM Introduction to Rome Rome 509-338 BC • Invented many of the present day institutions • 509 ▯ founding of the city Rome • 338 ▯ created a small civilized place o At this point in time Greece is very ahead, they are fighting the Persians at this point Rome 338- 1 BC • Continuing the expansion of the empire • They believed that their role was to rule the rest of the world 753-509 BC: Regal Period • Ruled by kings 509-31 BC: Republic • Under public possession ▯ all the citizens have equal share of this empire 31 BC–AD 476: Empire/Imperial • There is an emperor (commander) that rules the empire Italy • Natural Resources o Has mountains with timber (volcanic mountains ▯ minerals enrich soil) o Lowlands for grain o Orchards, vineyards • Apennines o A volcanic mountain range ▯ minerals = better soil o Given the way the winds blow from the Mediterranean (clockwise) it is hard for Greeks to sail to Italy ▯ Italy is ISOLATED • Eastern vs. Western Italy o West coast of Italy = lots of rainfall o East coast of Italy = dry and less fertile There were 3 major powers: 1. Greeks o Greeks frequently sent colonists from Greece and many of them sought out southern Italy 2. Phoenicians o The Phoenicians didn’t inhabit Italy but they traded with Italians and dominated the trade routes ▯ They were merchants that sailed and found raw materials 3. The Etruscans 700-480 o League of 12 Regions: as a federation of 12 cities that worked together o Each city governed a specific region o They were very influential on early roman culture o Etruria actually incorporated Rome into one of their cities o They were literate ▯ but their language is impossible to decipher Hepatoscopy: ▯ Used to examine the liver ▯ Thought you could predict the future by looking at the liver of a full grown bull Orientalizing Period: ▯ Influence from the east ▯ Believed to be an imitation of Greek art/architecture ▯ The Romans imitated this Etruscan culture ▯ They are trading raw materials to the Phoenicians and in return they would get luxury goods (art) Etruscan Tombs: Tarquinia ▯ Buried in sarcophagi coffins (a coffin in a cubby hole) ▯ Conveyed the image of symposiums on their tombs ▯ Not sure if the Etruscans actually had any of these “symposiums” or knew what they were ▯ Main source of Greek art is from the Etruscans ▯ They just bought whatever was sent to them ▯ The Etruscans depicted that women = men (unlike Greece) The Villanovans • 1000-720 • They cremated their dead • They would keep the ashes in urns and in turn Urn-fields were created • Walls of huts were made of mud and wood, and the roofs were made of thatch ▯ not a very rich society • Thought to be early stages of Rome • Had a distinctive kind of pottery • Dressed like later Romans ▯ “toga” – robe with a pin Romulus and Remus; Aeneas Amulius Numitor SEE TEXT FOR THIS STORY Rhea Silvia = Mars Romulus Remus Romulus and Remus is the story of the founding of Rome • Romulus says that anyone who wants to become a citizen can (asylum) • They only people that joined were runaway slaves and criminals because no one wanted to leave their city ▯ BUT ALL MALES • Romulus has a festival that neighbours come to and the women that come are abducted so that they now have wives o But the abducted wives actually fall in love with the men • Myth of Romulus disappearance ▯ either taken up to heaven or was slaughtered 753-509: Regal Period • 7 kings x 35 years = 245 years of ruling • The kings get progressively worse over time • Schematization: a framework on an artificial grid to arrange dates o Categorized things under certain kings by what they were known for o The stories of the kings were very detailed but almost too organized/tidy o What the kings did – each one is responsible for a particular advance in culture/the city • Romulus (1 ) was the founder of everything Roman • Numa Pompilius (2 ): accredited to religious components rd • Tullus Hostilius (3 ): accredited to the Roman style army (legion) • Ancus Marcius (4 )th th • Tarquinius Priscus (5 ): accredited to the building of things o Wife (Tanaquil) maneuvered that the next king would be her choice th o Servius Tullius (6 ) (was her lover and she arranged for him to become the next king th • L. Tarquinius Superbus (7 ) o took power because he and his brother married 2 sisters o One of the sisters realized she married the wrong boy o Married the other brother and told him to run over Servius Tullius (her father) ▯ grandson of the 5 thking o She eventually did it for him o Tarniquinius Superbus became the 7 thking o Forced the Romans to work like slaves to make roads, carve out sewage systems o Sextus Tarquinius was his son ▯ Brutus was a friend of Lucretia’s family and decided to rape a woman because she is the most virtuous wife (blackmails her into letting him rape her) ▯ After she confesses to her friends and family ▯ Says she will never allow and man to do this nor never allow another woman to be in her place ▯ She kills herself after making this speech ▯ Brutus drives out the last king Villanovan Rome • 900/800: Rome inhabited • 750: Huts and a Wall • 600: Stone Houses • 650-550: Drainage • 550: New Construction • 525: Paved Road; Villas • 500: Widespread Destruction Rank and Status at Rome: the Family 2014-01-20 6:53 PM Status • It was easy to become a citizen but to attain a position of prominence of society took an incredible amount of effort o Your rank determined where you sat, what you wore, etc. o SATUS CONSCIOUS SOCIETY • Also refers to your ancestors and your future family • Your ancestors are judging you on how you perform • To be a man in Roman society was a tremendous burden, you have expectations based on what you ancestors accomplished • Culture (a roman word) ▯ means to cultivate, transform your family into something better (advance) • Romans were jealous people ▯ judged people about their rank based on their accomplishments Atrium: o A large open space in the middle of the house that’s for relaxing, its like a court yard o Contained tributes to what the family has done (accomplishments) o They celebrated their family accomplishments ▯ like worshiping their ancestors Husband and Wife: o Paterfamilias: the founding father ▯ Was supposed to be wise, responsible, hard working, virtuous o The wife was not a part of the family ▯ When she married her husband whatever her property was became a part of her new family ▯ If she were to divorce she would take her property with her ▯ She was not a possession to her husband Patron and Client: o An idea that came from Roman families Patron: someone that acts like a father to another person that needs his assistance Client: someone that relied on this persons help o Romans were true givers (like family) and they are not doing it for payment/for something in return but for RESPECT, POWER and AUTHORITY ▯ Powerful assist less powerful o Patrons were worried about their clients going to other patrons because they weren’t powerful enough to do something for their client Patricians and Plebeians: o If you didn’t have a last name of a Patricians then you cant hold jobs as priests and higher level jobs etc o The social class was very clear ▯ If you were on the top of the social ladder you’re not allowed to have businesses that generated profit Hierarchy and Social Climbers: o It was easy to become a citizen but it was very hard to enter the upper class o People of the lower class were made aware by the upper class of their rank and status The Roman Constitution: The Struggle of t he Orders 2014-01-20 6:53 PM Struggle of the Orders 2 Consuls replace the king o HAVE to work together Patricians vs. Plebeians o The oldest families, the Patricians, were the ones to take over power ▯ Stated that they were the only ones that could hold positions of authority ▯ Only Patricians could marry Patricians o The Plebeians were the commoners ▯ It was a struggle (struggle of the orders) that the commoners could have a say in society Secessions o The lower class (95% of citizens) would get up and leave the city as a form of strike until they got what they wanted o This forced the Patricians to grant the Plebeians what they wanted Sacrosanct Tribunes w/ veto power o Tribunes sole jobs were to look out for the interests of the Plebeians o If not in the interest of the Plebeians tribunes can veto the power ▯ Patricians are forced to abandon their idea and find another solution Progression of the Successions: o Plebeian Assembly (450 BC) o Laws of the 12 Tables & Decemvirs (452 BC) ▯ plebeians can know what the laws are o Plebeians can marry patricians (445 BC) o Plebeians can be consuls (c. 366 BC) o Plebeian laws binding on all Romans (287 BC) Cursus Honorum – The Chain of individuals o You cant move up in the chain until you have been a certain position (can jump from aedile to consul) o The tribune of the plebs watched over these positions and made sure their decisions were in the interest of the people – if not they could veto o Most of the positions were annual, you had colleagues (shared with other people to prevent one person from having too much power) ** NEED TO KNOW THIS CHART ** The Fasti: o A list of elected individuals o Repetition of last names ▯ certain families were more influential than others o If it says I or II at the end of the name it shows if they are elected 2 times or 3 times rd o Sometimes 3 names/nicknames would be developed to branches of families if the family was so large The ways that the Romans came together to elect officials were confusing ▯ MANY WAYS (amount of votes per class was based on wealth) The Senate: “group of elders” o Lifetime membership (unless you do something outrageous) o Composed of all who held office in the cursus honorum ▯ The 4 offices (quaestor, aedile, praetor, consul) ▯ Once you were in one of these you were automatically part of the senate o Gave advice based on their experience o Senate could also go to the people to give them ADVICE on how they should vote on something o Usually this advice was followed (because they have lots of power) ▯ the people can vote however they want but in the future if they don’t follow the senates advice the senate can refuse favours for these people ** a mixture of a monarchy, a democracy and an oligarchy ** Roman Religion 2014-01-20 6:53 PM Early Roman Religion • Sky God; War God • Numina = spirit ▯ early Romans believe that the world was manifested by spirits (animism) ex. Springs of water • Etruscan influence ▯ fortune telling • ‘The conquered Greeks conquered the Romans’ o Greek and Roman Gods are similar as the Romans picked up parts of the Greek relig – took over Greek Gods (diff names) ▯ Sky God: Jupiter ▯ War God: Mars Ancestors; Pietas • Shrine: depicted the god of that certain household = their genius o Thought that some of the family members had certain characteristics that pertained to genius (ex. Musical ability) • Pietas ▯ doing what you were obligated to do towards another person (virtuous) • Sacrifices were offered to the ancestors and the family gods o Romans were precise w/ their sacrifices (certain days) o Different type of sacrifices for different gods Religious Formalism • What matters is the form (proper procedures) and less so the content ▯ everything has to be just right Roman Surveying o Needed to create very precise and straight infrastructure o Needed everything to be perfect ▯ This was the Roman “way” Roman Engineering o Roman engineering began with religion ▯ Sacrifice must be made at an exact spot ▯ Engineering was needed for absolute precision to get to the spot ▯ building roads to make it to the spot/place of worship ▯ ex. Had to go due east for a sacrifice so they needed a straight road due east Pontifex: ‘Maker of Bridges’ • Priests were the first to make bridges ** Roman forts: had a certain way and layout in which all of them had to be built ** Church and State • Non-professional priests o Didn’t study at a theological school ▯ part of politics o They are not religious experts o Becoming a priests was part of a political career and needed training • Politics and Priesthoods o There were priestly colleges/groups of priests with specific responsibilities o There were 4 different Colleges: ▯ Pontiffs: ▯ Administrative – religious contracts ▯ Oversaw the calendar ▯ Augurs: ▯ Took omens ▯ Oversaw oracles ▯ Convoked or dismissed meetings ▯ Flamens: ▯ Are priests for specific gods ▯ Vestal Virgins: ▯ The home-fire (fireplace of Rome) ▯ Kept the sacred home fire of Rome burning ▯ No men were allowed to enter ▯ Was the place were the Romans kept their wills Roman Syncretism: Interaction of Cultures • Roman tolerance ▯ especially religion o Very open to outside ideas • Roman piety and pragmatism o Took advice of others in order to put Rome at the best possible position ▯ didn’t counteract any advice • Rome – ‘The Religious Capitol’ o Eventually set up temples for Gods of other cultures if it was in their best interest Astrology and the Paranormal • Emperors fear of the paranormal and astrology • Ghosts and magic Mystery Religions • Religions that uncovered the true nature of the Gods – provided you with something that was supernatural • These Gods offered: o Moral code/morality o Personal contact w/ Gods o Purification o Hope for the afterlife Bacchanalian Cult: Dionysus o Cult who were perceived dangerous; were feared by Romans o Roman authority allowed for worship of god of choice ▯ Banned the worship of this God ▯ not in the best interest of the people Magna mater o Exotic worship o Worship the great mother ▯  Found to be meteorite o Romans did not know what that meant Isis o unofficial temples at Rome o Related to Aphrodite and Cleopatra Sensory Overload o There is incense, music, chanting that took worship to another level Mithras: Zoroastrian o Was the son of the god of light who overcame the god of darkness o Worshiped by Roman soldiers o Born on Christmas day of a virgin mother ▯ like Christians (syncretism) Yahweh o Had Jewish and Christian followers o Was the god who people turned to for help and advice Judaea and the Empire o This is the point in which the Roman tolerance stops o Romans had the most problems with the Jews than with any other culture ▯ Refused the practice of Jewish religion and eliminated Judaea as a whole ▯ became Palestine Scam Artists • There was some people who took advantage to the gullibility of people • Travelling “priests” that either slept with women or took money from these people ** Augustus tries to create a public religion that would provide comfort ** • before he comes in there was a distinct difference b/w state religion and mystery religions Conquest of Italy 2014-01-20 6:53 PM • Rome was a Latin community (Latians) War with the Latin League • Rome against all the rest of the Latin’s Cassian Treaty: o Rome alternates leadership with other cities over the Latin community (federation) o Rome gets half of all the spoils taken in war o All cities have free trade, marriage and immigration ▯ Any person can become a citizen o Rome becomes part of a larger entity In 405, Roman creation of a professional army • Done through drafting citizens (required to fight) • They paid their soldiers if they were drafted • Wanted to encourage their citizens that they would receive compensation for their efforts in fighting ▯ would receive something in return • Becomes profitable to become a soldier ▯ people now want to be drafted Gauls Sack Rome - 387 • Gauls from across the alps attack Romans and then head off • Gauls were intimidating and big o It was a way of their culture to create destruction to show their manlihood o They did not fight to create an empire – they didn’t want to occupy Rome • Romans were said to be saved by geese ▯ they quacked when the Gauls entered which woke up the sleeping Romans 3 Saminite Wars • Rome vs Samnites (Latins revolt) o Latin revolts due to not approving of how the Romans treated them • Rome vs Samnites and Etruscans o No clear winner • Rome vs Samnites, Etrusc., Gauls, Umbrians, Sabines, + Lucanians o Rome prevails by offering out terms to these tribes War with Pyrrhus • Pyrrhic victory ▯ were you win but you wish you never fought in the first place because you are worse off after o Two minor southern ‘Greek’ cities had a conflict ▯ one asked for Roman help the other city sank some Roman ships o Roman declared war on the city who called in Pyrrhus to help them (he descended from Alexander the Great) o Pyrrhus destroys Romans twice o Rome was ready to fight a third time – Pyrrhus left after second war because he didn’t have enough men where as the Romans kept drawing more men o When he left, Greek cities yielded to roman authority ** Romans now are in control of most of Italy ** How did they hold onto the empire? • They allowed the conquered people to have access to Roman citizenship • Any people that were faithful/influential could be offered citizenship ▯ interests that were similar to Rome • Try to reward loyalty Degrees of Citizenship There was different levels of citizenships: 1. Full Roman Citizenship a. Citizens of Rome ▯ full citizenship i. Had full rights and could vote b. Cities with full citizenship c. Roman colonists sent to protect borderlands d. Cities with civil rights but no vote e. Freed slaves 2. Latins and ‘Allies’ • Didn’t pay property tax • But had to supply troops • Latins also had free trade, marriage and immigration 3. Italians and ‘provincials’ • No civil rights • Had to pay tribute • Had to supply troops The Punic Wars 2014-01-20 6:53 PM Carthage: Phoenician Colonists • Carthage was a city on the tip of Africa • It was a Phoenician colony and a trading city o Phoenicia set up colonies throughout Mediterranean and would ship rare items that they could sell at a profit or trade for o Wanted to set up a trading empire o They wanted an absolute monopoly on trade ▯ 1 treaty Rome had was w/ Carthage ▯ Rome granted Carthage the costal region (wanted friendship) • Carthaginians didn’t fight – they hired non-Carthaginians to fight for them Romans fought 3 wars against the Phoenicians (Punic wars) that were mainly against the Carthaginians Background of Roman conflicts: o Rome would enter into agreements with cities and would develop agreements with these cities o These colonies would go to Rome when they were facing problems or were threatened o Rome was their ‘patron’ o Rome would eventually would run into conflict with these colonies st 1 Punic War o Started because some bandits sieged Sicily o Sicily asked for help from Carthage o Carthage agreed to support the bandits o Bandits refused to pay Carthage for their support then the bandits asked Rome for help ▯ Senate said that they were against this ▯ The people decided against the senate and wanted to ally with the Sons of Mars against Carthage o Romans were convinced to go to war by the wealth of the opposing nations that they could obtain if they won o Battle between Carthage and Romans ▯ Soldiers intent was to protect the bandits and loot some towns at the same time o Romans who were land fighters are faced with the superior naval Carthaginian army ▯ Rome decided to build a navy and copied a Carthaginian war boat and called it the raven ▯ Had a plank that connected the 2 boat and then would fight them as ‘foot soldiers’ o The first 3 fleets sank but the 4 thfleet defeated the Carthagenians (but there was no single moment were the Romans dominated) o Carthagenians gave up the war and agreed to a peace treaty Peace Terms o Carthagenians were forced to give Rome money, leave Sicily and give all islands between Sicily and Italy to the Romans o Carthage got Africa and Spain o Carthagenians commander and his mercenary army thought they had been betrayed by this decision to agree to peace ▯ This portion of army that felt betrayed sieged Corsica and Sardinia as compensation ▯ The betrayed army wanted to be under the protection of Rome and Rome agreed ▯ Corsica and Sardinia were now a part of Italy too o The leader was the son of the man who lost to the Romans, Hannibal ▯ He had to swear to never be friends with the Romans nd ▯ It was left to Hannibal to lead the 2 Punic war o Carthagenians went to Spain to gather resources and colonize (rich in metals) ▯ all overseen by Hannibal ▯ Forced Spaniards to work for him o Hannibal attacked Saguntum who were allies with Rome already o Rome stated that Saguntum was theirs and Hannibal disagreed o Hannibal was warned to back off or there would be a war. 2nd Punic War o Romans fortified the port cities to block the Carthagenians navy o Hannibal prepared a plan: ▯ Decided to go through the Alps during the winter so he could land in Italy during the springtime ▯ He crossed with elephants in the winter, only one elephant survived ▯ Wanted the elephants to wow the Italians ▯ He wanted to enter into Italy with a small but trained fighting force proposing freedom hoping that Roman allies would join him o His plan did not work ▯ not enough allies defected for him to gain power in Rome (allies were loyal to Rome) o He was stuck in Rome and couldn’t leave ▯ Instead he stayed for 13 years and never lost a battle and caused damage to Rome but never attack Rome (the city) specifically ▯ Fought 3 battles with Rome and each time he defeated them ▯ Hannibal was very logical in his battle tactics which allowed him to win ▯ MILITARY GENIUS ▯ Rome then stated Quintus Fabius Maximus as the dictator ▯ Called him ‘Cunctator’ meaning procrastinator ▯ He refused to fight Hannibal ▯ Hannibal loots Fabius’s home town except Fabius’ home to make the Romans angry with Fabius ▯ After his 6 months he has to step down ▯ The last battle was the most amount of deaths in one day (85 000 soldiers) leaving almost all of the Roman fighting force dead ▯ After this he didn’t attack Rome and instead he sent his troop to cities to preach freedom ▯ again most of the cities stuck with Rome ▯ Finally Romans gained enough strength to retaliate in Carthage and Africa and forced Hannibal to return to Carthage ▯ In Zama, Hannibal was defeated by the Romans ▯ Rome took control of all of Carthagenian land Bending the Roman Constitution • During the war the Romans made many promises to the Gods in order for them to defeat Hannibal • In the middle of the war Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus ▯ because he defeated Hannibal in Africa • In general the senate didn’t agree that he should had been leading the roman army (even though he is part of the ruling class) during the Punic wars because he was too young but the people wanted him in charge because he was the most adapt for the job o This was not normal for the Romans for this to happen o Africanus drew an army with money out of his own pocket because the senate didn’t want to support him • The senate afterwards attack him with lawsuits because he broke what was considered ‘normal’ for the senate to accept him to stand for public office • There are now unsetting things happening in roman society The Roman Army 2014-01-20 6:53 PM Rome grew because of its militaristic state • Playing with 'Lego': Defining the Roman Army o Legion ▯ legio – army ▯ legere - to choose • Levy and election, selection of army happened at the same time as the election • Every adult male was expected to fight in some time in there life if they were fit Looking Greece-y: The Phalanx Period, 8c - 350 BC • Rome was fighting and expanding • Greek influence via Etruscans, 3 tribes, 3000 troops • Have to have land, had to provide amour • Servian reforms, centuries- outside the 3 tribes, they would vote in elections • Juniores, juniors, mainly levied from, 18-46 • Seniores, older, backup in case something went wrong • Campus martius, pomerium, sacred border of Rome, very important to roman mentality of what was roman and what was foreign, anything outside was foreign • Outside of the border, consuls had imperium over life and death, inside, no one was allowed to bring arms • Outside Rome, consuls can keep power by the ability to take control and kill anyone who stepped out of line • Armies domain was outside the border Give them a Hand: Intro of Manipula Legion, 350-100 • Gauls come in and annihilated the Romans, looted and left - knocked Rome’s confidence • Maniplus, handful, manipular legion, reorganize army into different 'handfuls' of men who would act in different groups, more effective, • Rome changes the phalanx way of fighting Four battle lines • elites, skirmisher, out in front, youngest men, annual levy at about 18 recruited and given light armour, throwing spear and shield, throw the shield and run away to disrupt the enemy lines • hastati, spearman, next youngest men, in 20s, fought battles before, first line of attack, after they did what they could, the would retreat and principes would trade spaces with them • principes, principle experienced men, late 20s and 30s • triari, their guys, older guys, last resort if the battle was going bad • usually rome was able to win battles with the first three lines • ability to win battles decisively • command structure • commanders have individual command over each maniplus, acting as a unit without strong generals • Each maniplus had own general that could move around battlefield at will • roman man power, didnt win every battle • allies, numbers and cavalry, because of allies they were able to keep going • for any maniple, the romans had, allies had to have that many answers • cavalry got provided for by roman allies • this army fought Hannibal An Army of Half Asses: Marius' Reforms 107-104 • cohort, cohors = crowds, basic unit of roman army, bigger than maniple, cookie cutter plan of battle • three battle line • pilum, throwing spear and gladius hispaniesnsis, sword from spain • Marius made these two weapons the main weapons • Standardization • state armed pays for Amy because those who don't own land cant pay for it, • legions permanent all have a totum or mascot to facilitate a band of brothers type thing • training, based along gladiatorial training programs, • promotion, incentive, • soldiers would throw spears, pull out swords and wreck havoc o carnage rates go up about 50-80% • trend toward no land requirement - before you had to have a certain amount of land to fighfigt eft out a large number of the population Phases of Battle 1. war cry 2. Advance within fighting range 3. Throw spears 4. Attack with swords • even with bad generals, they could win wars Basic Structure • legionary ▯ 1 • century ▯ 60 legionary • maniple – 2-6 centuries • legions - 40 man After Marius o legionary ▯ 1 o century ▯ 80 legion o cohort, 6 cen o legion, 10 co Army in Action: Cynoscephalae • after Hannibal, Romans get angry at all who helped him • Rome ransacks Greece with thousands of men • New roman manipular army (before Marius) against old style Alexandrian phalanx and shows how much more effective the romans army is • Rome general sees Philip on a hill who then charged with his phalanx down hill and starts to win • Romans start winning on other side, dont know their losing with Philip • Small times general notices the guys on the left are losing, he takes initiative to come around the other side to the back of here phalanx • Romans win. y coming from both sides of the phalanx Aegates Island • 241, first Punic war o fourth fleet o Romans didn’t use the bridge on the ship much o Adapted the naval way of fighting o Marsala sieged by Romans who try to blockade it, Carthiginians try to get it back, o Roman wins, now have a roman navy o would be used much later on in many circumstances Syracuse, Carthage, Athens • Syracuse, Archimedes, Greek scientist, Romans build big siege towers on boats would try to get over walls, scale the walls and syracusans would putting up such a good fight until they were distracted by a religious festival, waited until night and then took the city • Carthage, built a giant structure across a harbour to block ships, attack front and take the city • Athens, waiting for them to starve, dug under walls, walls collapsed • whatever worked is how they took a city, no fixed plan • werent afraid to change landscape and build things Plots to Swords • citizens who are capable of bearing arms had to fight, male citizens 17-46 • property qualifications, 11 000 asses then 4000 asses then nothing (bronze coin) • service of 16 seasons, with maximum of 6 consecutives, if there’s along war, serve for 6 years and then you get a break • emergency pool • longer wars and their problems was as Rome grew, so did the length of its wars , because wars are longer, their farther away and there's more need for a professional army • now armies were expected to live as they were, carry what they needed to allow them to move faster • Half of Rome’s armies are the allies, they all have different views on military, they fight with Rome, die with Rome but Rome doesn’t give them anything in return • tension between Romans and allies Discipline and Training • training through experience • Marius and gladiatorial training • engineering and building, supposed to build everything you need • consuls imperium o decimation, outside of the city of Rome o consuls had power of life and death over you, this is how they kept strict discipline in the army o centurions had the right to beat you o institution of decimation, if cohorts had mutinies, everyone in cohorts be arrested, every tenth man in cohort was killed regardless of whether you were involved or not • equites were the rich busniess people, can't hold senatorial positions but high military positions and senators, use the army as a stepping stone on their way up to the consul • promotion o The Triumph: ▯ awarded to successful generals ▯ one time legally, an army could enter Rome to celebrate ▯ showcase booty, gather all the spoils, parade them around, show off all the slaves they had ▯ competition aspect, if you get a triumph, generals gain popularity and get voted for again ▯ origins go further back, institution in Rome where senate could only tell you when you can get one ▯ trying to outdo the other Shifting Loyalties • senate? o looking to the senate are those who would come home, farmers, thos
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