Midterm #3 to Final.pdf

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
David Lamari

Augustan Art and Architecture 2014-03-17 6:59 PM The Prima Porta Augustus • 6’8” tall ▯ he was on 5’7” • Found at a villa in Prima Porta, owned by his wife • Liked to be depicted in military apparel but he himself rarely went into battle • Contraposto style • There is a definite message behind it – propaganda o Like a statement being uttered to the viewers o Venus can be seen frequently in Augustan art because he though he was related to Cupid (who’s mother was Venus) o Popularized the image of Cupid o The scene depicted on his armor was a peace treaty that had been negotiated by Augustus and gods and goddesses are observing the scene • ARTISTIC PROPAGANDA Augustan Portraits • Shown as a priest with a toga over his head • His wife was depicted as perfection – counterpart to this great leader Augustus’ Building Program • In one year alone he repaired 82 temples out of his own money • Repaired buildings that had been destroyed in the previous civil wars • He also built many new structures • When he built the new structures he build them OUTSIDE the city of Rome o Drained the swampland area outside the city of Rome so that new structures could be built o Didn’t kick out civilians from the city, instead used unused land Forum of Augustus • Open area in the middle that could be used for various things • Created it inside of Rome • Maximized the amount of available space that he had o Created “ears” on the sides of the temple • Decorated it with a series of statues o The statues were the greatest roman men and on the other side it was great men of Augustus’ family • The temple was to the god of vengeance o Was to remind visitors that he got vengeance to the assassins of his father Mausoleum of Augustus • Build outside the city of Rome • It was a large cemetery that held the bodies of his relatives • Round about the mausoleum he built a large park • Ancient Romans built their structures with CONCRETE which was lighter and it allowed more flexibility for shape • They could clamp marble sheets to the physical structure ▯ it was a veneer of marble attached to the concrete walls Horologium of Augustus • This was the worlds largest sun-dial • Built next to the mausoleum • The large pillar brought back from Egypt was used as the pointer for the sundial • At high noon on Augustus’ birthday points directly to the altar of peace ▯ represents that on his day he wants to represent peace Ara Pacis; Altar to Peace • Off to the side of the Horologium • Alter to the goddess peace ▯ first of its kind for Rome o Attracted a lot of attention because of the complexity in the details (inside and out) South: The Procession o Parade of men (priests, kids, fathers, mothers) o Image of the family is very important to augustus Scenes o Anneus (Trogan hero) is offering sacrifice to the gods in a Roman way o Other wall shows a woman surrounded by plenty (of kids, food, animals) ▯ “Augustan image” o Another image was of a lion/lioness and her cub ▯ depicts mother and child with an alter with garland Garlands o Skulls from dead animals that have been sacrificed connect the garlands together o Cups that were used for sacrifice o Ribbons are seen o All these things are associated w/ religion and sacrifice o Start to see these same images on coffins o Suddenly Romans want NATURE and religious imagery in their homes, etc. Cross-Cultural • Introduction of non-Italian cultures • See depiction of sphinxes, Greek snakes, etc. Roman Glass • The quality of the art and architecture rises = higher standard living • Blown glass becomes very popular Roman Jewelry • More jewelry is scene in this era • Shows that people had the wealth to purchase these things • Pendants: o Amber and ivory and onyx pendent that depicts the emperor Augustus that was purchased by a private citizens to be hung in his house ENCOMPASES RELIGION, PROSPERITY, FAMILY, ETC. = WANT HARMONY Art and Propaganda • Image of Augustus remained up until WWII • Common day people are now unsure if the image of Augustus was in fact true, resembled the image of Hitler • Hitler exposed to us about how you can manipulate the people into thinking he was good • Hitler imitated a lot of Augustus’s style imagery • Don’t know if Augustus used propaganda to shape Rome into his own image The Roman House/Roman Wall-painting 2014-03-17 6:59 PM The Roman House: Domus; “The Atrium House” • The emperor suddenly interfered with the patron client relationships • He implemented welfare programs • Dominated by the large central room called the atrium, with a throat at the front and the garden at the back • Doesn’t have doorways so you can see their wealth from the street • Romans are STATUS conscious The Throat; Shops o Enter through the “throat” o The throat always has a pretend dog for decoration o clients wait on the sidewalk before sunrise an walk through the throat and to the o On either side of the throat is shops to sell things to the waiting people in line to the clients o The shops include bars or markets or restaurant and dry cleaners The Atrium; the Wings o The atrium that depict the achievements of the household o Clients would walk through to the back of the Atrium – the Tablinum - where the Patron sat to ask a favour of the patron o Water pool (Impluvium) in the middle, it has a pip that leads it out to the sewers o Before it was for water supplies or where the rain could pour into but often it was just a decorative feature The Study and Bedrooms o Very minimalistic in the furniture (very few) o The furniture could be easily moved to accommodate for various events in the house o There is curtains if anyone wanted privacy in the Study or the Bedrooms o They had windows up high and narrow to prevent burglars Triclinium: The Dining Room o Wealthy aristocrats did not eat out – didn’t eat in public o Would eat in a reclined manner o Would have 3 couches that faced one another (u-shaped) o There were many paintings of dinner services and silverware and serving dishes o Men and women dine together The Garden: “Peristyle” o At the back of the house o There are pillars all around the garden o Used to be used as a vegetable garden but was converted to a show garden o It was a show garden and around it there were these pavilions that provides shades Kitchen; Cellar o This is were all the garbage was kept, slaves cooked there, slaves slept there, extra furniture was kept Pliny’s Villa • He was so lavish that he made a lawn that spelled out his name • So wealthy that a whole town sprang up around his villa • At the heart is ALWAYS the atrium Public and Private Space • They did not have privacy or solitude • Every thing was open Tavern/Workshop • 2 story place made of wood • Workshop down below and living quarters above • The entire family would live there Insula; “Island” • took up entire city block, 6 stories high apartment complexes • Everything was so expensive that families lived in one room • No one cared about privacy, even public bathrooms there was no such thing as privacy • No one wanted a top floor because you have to go up and down the stairs for water and it was hot Flooding • Flooding was very common in Rome o The ground floor was a lot cooler but you could be under water for a period of time o Houses on mountain were key for avoiding flooding • These buildings were cheaply built so they would tear it down and another insula would be built Fire • Fire likes to leap for one house to another (very close together) • Would have a heater in the room to use as a furnace • Most Romans wouldn’t cook in their house because they were hazardous and impractical • Concrete would split if the heat was intense enough Waste Disposal: Sewers • Goddess of love is also the goddess of sewers • People will pray to them for the sewers to work without clogging o If got clogged the slaves would have to unplug it • Romans didn’t have indoor plumbing • Female had a different chamber pot • after using it you can walk to the sewer to clean it out or just pour it out the window • it was the responsibility of the people to clean their own sidewalk • public restrooms were open (no private stalls) Street Cleaning • People threw out EVERYTHING so street cleaning was a big problem • Stray dogs would wander the streets eating all the disposed trash Public Fountains • There was also a public fountain for people to use for cleaning • It created a constant running stream of water that will run and clean the streets Infectious Diseases; Magic Amulets • Romans weren’t very hygienic • Magical amulets were given to little children o It was a fist or penis necklace worn around the neck to prevent diseases • ½ of all children died because of the lack of hygiene Low Status Areas • Monochrome colours and neutral colours was reserved for slaves because it was the cheapest • Colours were reserved for the wealthy • Most expensive colours: yellow, red and black Fresco Buono (Fresco Secco) • Liked to decorate their walls with murals/frescos (didn’t hang pictures) • Fresco buono would be were you paint into the wall when it is still wet ▯ allows paint to never fleck away and becomes a part of the mortar because of the limestone content • Makes a very permanent kind of art • Fresco Secco were dry wall frescos 1 Style • they liked geometric shapes • painted on what looked like pillars and blocks of marble stone • began to do experimentation with the blocks o created decorated “wall paper” like walls nd 2 Style • went further and made it look like a landscape • tried to create an illusion of the outside world • “window” like paintings to create a realistic illusion 3rd Style • the realistic illusion of the walls is gone is not an attempt to deceive you (but still have these windows) • slender pillars, various scenes • very DELICATE 4th Style • these “windows” get replaced by actual paintings such as a mythological scenes Subject Matter • Some of them are mythological • Some are everyday scenes (dining, fruit, etc.) • Fresh fruit and meat were shown • Some people would have pictures of themselves • Pictures of people writing showed off the fact that they can write • Valued mythology and literacy • Sex was often depicted in pictures and they weren’t viewed as inappropriate • Also had the presence of death ▯ often scene in dining rooms o Viewed it as they should have a good time and live life because they were going to eventually die • Also enjoy gladiatorial combat and chariot racing as a subject matter Mosaics • Would put pieces of glass/stone in the floor • Decorations served for social function • Red, yellow and black paint were expensive o Black and white was the cheaper way to do it • Same subject matter and were very detailed The City of Rome 2014-03-17 6:59 PM Rome, Latium and the Tiber • Very fertile area • Not on the coastline • Inland surrounded by hills • Good defensive position 7 Hills of Rome • hills are good for defense • and good for when Rome flooded, you could flee to the hills o wealthy people lived on the hills nd Republican Romes: 2 C. BC • Rome was not a pretty city • Paved streets were just starting being done • Wooden buildings were replaced by marbled buildings Stone Bridges + Triumph Arches • Built by people using their own money st ‘Prestige Urbanism” Triumphal Architecture 1 C. BC • most generals and military commanders and would build these new structures using the loot they obtained from their battles 1 000 000 inhabitants in 7 sq. miles • the city was very cramped • there would be pockets of areas (like central park in NY) were people could relax and unwind Capitoline • Most famous out of the 7 hills, was right next to the river • Held the most important temple of Jupiter • Was the place of safety • Also would throw traitors off the hill The Roman Forum • Was below the Capitoline and ran all the way to the coliseum • Held all the important buildings ▯ administrative center of Rome • The Vie Sacra was the main road The Senate house o Were the senate would meet o w/I the forum Palatine • hill of upper class housing • Augustus took the hill and transformed it into the private residence of the emperors Field of Mars: Campus Martius • Uninhabited before because it was swampland ▯ military training ground • Augustus drained it and started building structures on it • It eventually became a place were Romans could live Rome 45 BC – 288 AD • Increased the network of roads and the amount of infrastructure during and after the rule of Augustus • Before Augustus other cities laughed at rome The Julio-Claudians 2014-03-17 6:59 PM The Julio-Claudians • Octavion Caesar is a leader of Rome, his last name becomes an official title ▯ creates a dynasty o So much from him got imitated • Julio-Claudians come from the blood line of Julius and Claudius • Octavia is married twice (marc Anthony and Marcellus) • Octavian is married to Livia Tiberius • Tiberius (married to Julia- 3rdwife) is the son of Livia and the step son of Augustus • He was not Augustus' first choice to be his heir but everyone suitable died o 1 choice was Marcellus – sisters son – was too young and he died at an early age o All of his other choices died as well • Left Rome for a little while because he was unhappy to be married to Julia who was a slut o Cheaters build poor reputations in general society ▯ Julia gives him a poor reputation • He finally came back and finally accepted the role of leader o Was a very good emporer Emperor Tiberius • Augustus names Tiberius his official heir on condition that Tiberius names his nephew Germanicus his heir (not Tiberius’ own son) • Runs a very stable government o Has a surplus budget by cutting back on entertainment costs o Makes him disliked at Rome • Germanicus was popular, successful as a soldier and the people loved him as oppose to Tiberius • Tiberius is envious of Germanicus success o He reassigns Germanicus to Syria after Germanicus didnt listen the first time and he died in Syria o Some people presumed that it was from poison as there was blood on the walls and voodoism • When the Romans see the body come home which is escorted by his wife and 4 kids • The people are crying, but Tiberius did not want to give him a public funeral – private funeral for the family o The people are outraged • Tiberius then names his own son Drusus as his heir Sejanus • Sejanus was the head of Tiberius' body guard • He is his only friend and he saved him in a cave • His personal guard is called the Praetorian Guard o A personal army of top notch soldiers, very best in Rome o Were about 3000 men • Sejanus warns Tiberius that Drusus is wanting to kill Tiberius so he can become Emperor • Drusus’ wife goes to Tiberius to tell him of this news too • Tiberius executes his own son • Retreats to his own private island and Rome is run in his absence • Tiberius doesn’t realize that his son didn’t want to commit treason • Sejanus was actually the one responsible o He is sleeping with Drusus’ wife and they planned to overthrow Rome o Under the Rule of Sejanus while Tiberius is gone there is many people that are arrested for treason and other offences = Treason Trials • Tiberius eventually found out and they executed Sejanus • He executes every friend and family member of Sejanus due to loss of trust • Tiberius is now completely alone and has no one to trust Economic and Military Policy • Don’t want more expansion unless it is economically feasible o If there was enough revenue from a place that they conqured to fund the amount of legions needed to keep the land then they would invade • Worked out how many soldiers/legions it would take to keep the borders safe • No expansion w/o justification Caligula – “Little Boots” • The son of Germanicus was Caligula (little boots) was named emperor at 25 • Gives Romans entertainment, lowers taxes, builds buildings, held lavish games, no more treason trials o Was loved by the people o Bankrupts the treasury • He wanted to invade Britain and go against Germany o He is everything Tiberius is not • Caligula had sex with his sister to be like Jupiter and devoured the fetish after hearing a prophecy about the child being dangerous • Held dinner party for senators and broke into laughter because he said all he has to do is say one word and everyone would get their heads chopped off o Had no successor, assassinated by own body guard o After all Julio-Claudians are dead, Republic is restored • Body guards are out of jobs and they find the one last family member so they can keep their jobs – Claudius o The republic is now not in place Claudius • Senate randomly appointed the Claudius as the new emperor • He gave the body guards a cash bonus and doubled their salaries • Played up as a fool, and once became emperor he showed that he was a scholar and smart o Playing as a fool would make him less of a threat • Loved outside of Rome, but within Rome he was laughed at • The empire ran smoothly by Claudius o He did not trust or get along with the senators or aristocrats (possibly because he was mistreated by them) and therefore they did not like him rd • Messalina was his 3 wife and she was cheating on him the whole time and no one told him because he loved her so much o She openly had orgies while Claudius was out of Rome o Had an open marriage ceremony to her lover while he was gone o He was a puppet of his closest friends and wives o Got forced into having her killed • After her, they chose his niece as his next wife, Agrippina (sister of Caligula) o She was absolutely ruthless o She convinced Claudius to name his stepson Nero as the next heir as oppose to his own son o Soon after doing this, he died Nero: The last of the Julio-Claudians • When stepson steps up as the emperor (age 17) • The first thing he did was kill Claudius' son Britannicus • Nero had no interest of being emperor o Instead he wanted to be a performer • Nero's mom Agrippina hand picks his wives and lovers o Has coins made with both him and his mother on it • Made many attempts to kill his mother o One attempt was that he built a boat that would collapse o Agrippina’s slave girl claims she is Agrippina and she is clubbed while in the water o So Agrippina swims away o Finally he manages to kill her • After he kicked his wife while she was pregnant and killed her The Neronia • Nero sets up his own competition o “Neronia” was a massive Greek style festivals created by the Roman Emperor Nero • Appeared in public as an entertainer or as a watchman o Somehow won every event No one was allowed to leave during his performances and people had to keep clapping • Disgraceful for Rome and there were many attempts to murder him • Great fire of Rome destroyed 2/3 – 3/4 of the city o He blamed the Christians after he was blamed even though he had nothing to do with it o Nero built a palace for himself on the land that was burned down The Great conspiracy • He then built himself a golden house • Some people blamed him for the fire and he blamed the Christians o Christians had to admit to it after being tortured o Soon Christians were all arrested • He was a little mental and had insane desire to destroy the city, and then rebuild the city in a new style more to his liking o Likely was a rumor to frame him • Fled after 3rd assassination attempt • Killed himself and final words were: "a great artist has died" Roman Women 2014-03-17 6:59 PM Rome and Feminism • Women were very visible and powerful • But marriage was essential ▯ women didn’t desire to be single • No female role models • They had to accept their roles of being a married woman and a mother Marriage and Divorce • Minimum age had to be 12 to be married for a woman and 14 for a man • There are arranged marriages but both bride and groom had to consent (but rarely refused) • Marriage especially key for women in aristocracy • Legal Roman marriage - Roman citizens o If divorce is decided upon the woman gets her dowry back o The husband takes the children though • Must have kids Marriage Ceremony • Marriages involved keeping her own property ▯ she didn’t belong to him • For a marriage to last there had to be mutual respect and love • The woman had to make her own dress and veil (orange) and took the dress and tied a knot • Exchanged rings • The husband would take her and undo the knot • They would first have sex in the atrium Ideal of the Matrona: Mother and Wife • The mother was adored • Devoted to her children Widows • So many older men and men that fought in wars • Many widows or single mothers • Women were allowed to run businesses • Picked a lawyer to help them • Ran their families Women and Propery • Had husbands protery and/or own property • Many invested it, used it for social events, funded poets to produce literature • Important role in Roman society Female Strategies • Used their role as long as it was in the proper image – as a wife and a mother • had to do things “for the children/for the husband” • if they didn’t do things in a way that was socially acceptable they were socially ostracized Transgressive Women • Presented the image of a statuesque and perfect woman • Had removable hair pieces for statues to portray the correct message • Jewelry was a big deal – didn’t want too much or too little In Christian section ▯ no surprise that women have a dominant role Slavery 2014-03-17 6:59 PM SLAVES • We knew about them from law and literature • A lot of them were owned by pirates, a lot of them were from outside of the Roman Empires • With time, the most common ones were just first and second or third generation slaves ▯ bred as slaves Silanianum: Slave Resistance • Romans though slaves were stupid and dishonest • If a master was killed by a slave, all the slaves owned by that master would be put to death ▯ used to deter slaves from uprising • There were no slave resistances • Gives a sense of how fearful the Romans were • They were constantly scared that the slaves were going to turn on them Punishments, Abuse, Protection, Manumission • There was sexual abuse, mental abuse, and physical abuse • Only branded slaves if they ran away • They knew how to inflict pain without causing permanent damage • Slave revolt did not lead to long term options which is why it didn’t happen often • Antonius Pintus eventually put limits on slavery o made some slave rules o created a shrine that slaves could go to so that they could be sold to another master • Slaves were not conscious to the idea of freedom/manumission o If a slave did become free they would have the same rights as their master 1st Slave War: Southern Italy and Sicily • Former land owners would sell their land to wealthy Romans • Wealthy Romans owned plantations where they were run by slaves • Sometimes slaves ran away and it cheaper to buy new ones • So in the hills there was a rising number of runaway slaves o These runaway slaves banded together and got current slaves to join them • One runaway slave leader called himself King Eunus Antiochus • He inspired other slaves to revolt (400 slaves plus bandits) • For these uprisings you needed massive amounts of slaves but then they couldn’t go anywhere that there would be enough room ▯ would be then captured and reverted back to slavery 2nd Slave War: Sicily • There was a group of people that claimed that they were kidnapped by pirates and that they were citizens • So with that first example, hundreds of slaves came to the governors saying that they were kidnapped • So hundreds of slave owners were angry for loosing so many slaves so the governor was in a terrible place • He eventually called off the investigation • As a result 20k slaves revolted and even more later on Spartacu’s Slave Revolt • band of 70 gladiators in Southern Italy fought the Romans • For 3 years they kept roaming around defeating Romans • Until they eventually got crucified altogether • They even cut a deal with a pirate to sail them to a place where they’ll form a colony • They got to some random place eventually, trapped there and got defeated by Romans • This terrified the Romans and changed the ways they treated slaves The Flavians and the Adoptive Emperors 2014-03-17 6:59 PM - The Flavian dynasty consolidated the Roman Empire - The adopted emperors built on this reinforced empire and ushered in its golden age The Flavians and the adoptive Emperors • Overlapping emperors being proclaimed by their own soldiers as their next emperor (news traveled slowly) • The winner :Vespasianus ▯ Started a Dynasty ▯ Won because of the force of his soldiers • In far east : Stationed in Judea because Jews were rebelling • The soldiers urged their emperor to concur Rome • The empire was almost bankrupt • Vespasianus- tried to help the country to get back on track with money o Increase tax revenue to help the country o His own son complained about this because it was a shame to charge people to urinate • He begins building the Great Colosseum- He build it on the grounds of Nero started building a palace that was not done and Vespasianus took it and started building a public building. Year of the 4 Emperors Titus Flavius Vespasianus o He was a successful military commander o Suddenly Nero committed suicide and soon the empire was in a civil war known was the year of the Four Emperors o He believe that he was the future ruler after finding a number of omens and oracles o Collected a lot of taxes o There was uprising in Egypt (Judea) o Started a huge building program o On the foundation of Nero'
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