12 Pages

Classical Studies
Course Code
Classical Studies 2200
Kendall Sharp

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LAWKI ­ Social structure by telling a story ­ In Hesiod: o Prometheus (result of his story is LAWKI) o Theogony (structure at the end of the story coincides with LAWKI) o Works and Days (what it means to live this life well (farming) in LAWKI) ­ Enamu Elish (purpose is to explain LAWKI) ­ How humans integrate in the gods world ­ Iron age = LAWKI Male and Female ­ Theogony (Pandora was the first female gender) ­ When we were gender free, humans lived forever ­ One generation need to take over from previous ­ Prometheus made us mortal, Zeus made us sexual Succession ­ Succession is inherently instable ­ Gods have succession problems ­ Gods reproduce sexually, then there are more gods and they come into conflict ­ Story of Theogony is how succession stabilizes ­ At the end of the Theogony, they need to be gods we worship ­ Greek tradition mixes withANE materials Nature and Culture ­ For humans, if we have the level of culture that gods do, it would be too much for us, if humans have the same level of nature as animals do then it would be too much ­ For greeks, society doesn’t equal culture per se, but it’s a mediation between culture and nature ­ Golden mean = just enough culture and just enough nature Theogony ­ The story of how the universe/cosmos came to be and how Zeus brought order to it, and made the world a semi safe place for mortals ­ At the beginning, there isn’t a universe, it’s Chaos (gap) ­ Zeus brings order on everything in the universe but this is the state and structure at the end of the story ­ Theo = gods, gony = birth; therefore birth of gods ­ Genealogy as organizing principle (told as a story about events whose end state explains structure) ­ 2 BIG THEMES: o Succession myth and how Zeus takes over o Genealogical myth how all the gods and goddesses came to be ­ 4 principles: o Female to male o Maternity to paternity o Nature to culture o Force to craft ­ Main order is: CHAOS ▯ EARTH ▯ OURANOS ▯ CRONOS ▯ ZEUS ­ Main order for paternity is: OURANOS (Heaven, sky, Uranus) ▯ CRONOS ▯ ZEUS ­ Generation 1 simply appears: Chaos (neither male or female but would be female because provides a space for people to enter the world (like a womb)) ­ Generation 2: Earth (Gaia), Tartarus (where you punish titans), Eros (Love) o CONTRASTAPPEARS ­ Generation 3: Chaos gives birth to: Night, Day, BrightAir, Erebos; Earth gives birth to: Ouranos (god of love) and Sea o Earth and Heaven have: Titans (Cronos), monsters, Ocean o Generation 3 is when children start to appear o Ouranos is fathering creatures but gives inadequate paternity; he gets a C for paternity because he can get the baby started but then pushes them back into the womb o Cronos chopped off Ouranos genitals  Blood falls to the earth = furies are born  Genitals into the ocean =Aphrodite (goddess of love, born without a mother and her name means foam) ­ Generation 4: Cronos and Rheia have: Zeus, Poisedon, Hades, Demeter, Hera (OLYMPIC GODS) o PATERNITY PROBLEMS o Cronos gets a B for paternity; good at getting partner pregnant, good at birth but bad at their growth (as soon as offspring are born, he swallows them) o Cronos is the 1 “Oedipal” father- can be a rival within the family (Prophecy that Cronos would get overthrown by Zeys) o Earth makes a rock that will be the size and shape of Zeus so when Cronos is about to put Zeus in his mouth, he’ll swallow the stone instead ▯ as a result Cronos lost his powers and Zeus put the stone at Pythos ­ Generation 5: Zeus is inchange and gets anAfor paternity o PATERNITY PROBLEMS SOLVED o Zeus has a 2 step process:  (1) Use his force to bests Cronos and titans, and the monster (gain control over other agents who have root force)  (2) Use intelligence to make marital arrangements ­ Ouranos (cosmic) ▯ Cronos (social and family) ▯ Zeus (social and family and political) ­ For greeks, what they thought of as culture is the difference that humans make, the stuff that we don’t share with animals, how we shape our environment and have effect on our own bodies ­ Mother is there for the offspring to grow in her body and the father is a cultural construction ­ Machy = battle, Titano = titans; Titanomachy = battle with the titans ­ Cronos swallow shis own offspring to keep them from beign born ­ Zeus swallows his wife’s offspring to keep her from having a son ­ Monogenesis- when you only have one parent (going on for Zeus and Hera) Works and Days ­ Myth of 5 ages is about the theme of hubris and justice o Positive: Dike and Sophrosune  Dike = justice, right, fairness  Sophrosune = self-control, self-restraint o Negative: Hubris andAdikia  Adikia = injustice  Hubris = doesn’t have one definition, violence, over-assertion of personal honour, needles, making things worse unnecessarily, excessiveness ­ Hesiod makes it clear that the “moral”, as it were, is hubris ­ Hesiod is calling his brother Perses and the whole works and days has been a message to Perses about how to live a good life as a farmer ­ “But only when he has suffered does the fool learn this” – idea is that you can learn from others experience, you don’t need to learn from your own experience and it’s foolish to learn only from your own experience ­ Gold o Closest to the gods and most honourable o Promoted from mortals to daemons o Gods loved them, they got to eat at the gods table (Dike) o Good kings/chieftain’s o Vegetarians, did no work and they sit with the gods o Forever young adults, spend their time at banquets dancing ­ Silver o Closest to the gods and most honourable o Promoted from mortals to daemons o Gods hated them and had so much hubris that they refused to sacrifice from the gods o Bad kings/chieftain’s o Vegetarians, do no work but refuse to sacrifice o Forever youth, babies for 100 years ­ Bronze o No promotion, just anonymous death in Hades o Lots of hubris, they killed each other off as quickly as they could be born, o Very bad warriors o May not eat because nothing is mentioned about them o Adults ­ Heroes o No promotion, just anonymous death in Isles of Blessed o Good version of warriors, have justice among them (Dike) o Good warriors o Eat like the gold after they die o Adults ­ Iron o LAWKI (normal death) o Mix of good and bad, mostly things suck but there are some good things (Dike and Hubris) o Hesiod lived in the iron age o Farmers which were both good an bad o Eat bread and meat o Always doomed of growing old ­ Gold is to silver as Heroes is to Bronze ­ You need to bring your cultural background to the text: o Dike and Hubris, kings (chieftain’s who were led by persuasion, they had a meeting place calledAgora where you would settle disputes), warriors (audience didn’t have experience with warriors at this time; it was a pre-hoplite time), and perses (Hesiod tells him to stay away from hubris and pursue justice) ­ 2 kinds of strife: good and bad o Good- motivates people to compete with each other, makes you want to work hard, gives you self respect o Bad strife- when people fight and there’s a disagreement caused by hubris not by healthy appetite for personal honour ­ The story of the 5 ages is describing the structure of a 3 part story (beginning with myth and ending with LAWKI) ­ Hesiod is one of the first social theorists to think about people living together as a community and society because he noticed that the kings and farmers have different statuses and claims to honour ­ Warriors are the mediating class, they are trying to erase social distinction between the high and the low Prometheus ­ Significant because it marks the final apportionment of status ­ Zeus assigns honour to each god and goddess ­ Prometheus is a liminal/trickster figure Zeus ­ Boss of the gods ­ Liminal in Theogony only (trickster) ­ God of order, paternity and genealogy ­ Sky god and weather god ­ Olympics ­ Sanctity of oaths, kinship, guest-host relations, law court cases and verdicts, kingship (all have to do with invisibility) ­ Iconography ▯ thunder bolt ­ Established LAWKI ­ Apportionment of timê = honour ­ In Theogony, Zeus marries Hera and they have a marriage that is sterile (non fertile) in the sense that it fails to procure a heir or successor ­ Zeus himself marries a goddess named Metis but only briefly (she is the 1 wife); Metis means crafty intelligence ­ Zeus stuffs Metis into his mouth beforeAthena (loves fighting and war) is born and she is therefore a motherless child so it provokes Hera to have a fatherless child in retaliation (Hephaistos: lame in legs, incomplete male);Athena and Hephaistos complete each other o Zeus incorporates maternity into his paternity ­ God of Dike ­ Son is Heracles ­ Zeus and Danae had Perseus Enuma Elish (no earlier than 1100 BCE) ­ Very political poem because it’s in favour of Babylon, whose chief god was Marduk ­ Enuma Elish were the first 2 words in the Babylonian (heaven above) ­ Very similar to Hesiod’s Theogony, succession myth ­ Both poems end with the ascension of current number 1 god (Zeus and Marduk) ­ 5 Generations like the Theogony ­ Generation 1:Apsu and Tiamat (Chaos and Earth) o Have all these kids and their kids have kids, etc. (gen. 2-4) ­ Generation 5: Marduk (The lord, Bel, Enlil, Ba’ar) ­ Apsu and Tiamat play active roles (Apsu is sweet water and Tiamat is salt water) and they meet at the Persian gulf in an area inhabited by the marsh arabs ­ River marks the perimeter of the habitual zone (where you can’t live) ­ Apsu’s body becomes the foundation of Ea’s house ­ Final war, final stage of succession myth is when Marduk has war against Tiamat ­ Marduk defeats Tiamat and it’s similar to when Zeus is fighting the Typhoeus who was giant snake monster (1 time scholars noticed similarities) ­ Marduk divides Tiamat’s body up into all the known parts of the geographical world, thereby creating LAWKI geographically ­ Marduk found Babylon and his own temple, thereby creating LAWKI in religion (similar in Hesiod with Prometheus and Zeus) ­ Cultural Relevance o Mesopotamian city state- 4000- 800 BCE (city between 2 rivers)  Paleolithic- 40,000-10,000 BCE • People living in caves and stone tools and paint art on walls  Mesolithic- 10,000-7000 BCE • Between new and old stone age (liminal)  Neolithic- 7000 – 4000 BCE • Living in houses and farming ­ Mesopotamian and Egypt happened around the same time but there was not a lot of fighting in Egypt and there was a lot of fighting in Mesopotamian; in Egypt, the nile was friendly and didn’t destroy crops but in Mesopotamian there were flash floods that would destroy everything ­ Enuma Elish was recited on the 4 day of the New Year’s ceremony in Babylon at the palace; revalidating relationship with weather god so it’s a period when the chiefs are ritually humiliated and a joker king is put in place and when the festival is over and the regular king is back, the relationship with the weather god is recharged (liminality) ­ Similarities between Theogony and Enuma Elish ­ Gods are born and living inside the mother (Ea living inApsu and offspring kept inside the womb) ­ Younger gods become hated by the older gods (Cronos doesn’t like his own kids) ­ Ambiguous role of mother god (Earth and Tiamat) ­ Marduk is born and is turned into a weather god, Zeus is a weather god Heracles ­ Written byApollodorous but it’s written for a Roman audience who wants to know greek myth ­ Very many stories about Heracles and pulls them together for a series of adventures ­ Ambivalence between status as god and man ­ At the moment of Heracles death, he turns into a god ­ Heracles antiquity is because he is a hunter, but there is no other greek hero who is primarily a hunter, there were no lands for hunting ­ Hunter idea is that Heracles has stories go back about him to before the “neolithic” which is when agriculture is created ­ Because Heracles is a hunter hero, it’s the idea that oral tradition goes back to before farming ­ Heracles iconography is a club ­ Heracles has a way with animals ­ Alchmena thinks that Amphitryon comes home because Zeus makes himself like likeAmphiltryon and they sleep together but the next dayAmphitryon really does come home so they sleep together again; she conceives 2 times and has Iphicles (pure mortal) and Heracles (half divine) ­ Hero means a mortal person who you in their community worship at their tomb ­ Bronze age means Mycenaean ­ Heracles is almost always shown wearing a lion skin, either draped over his shoulder, or showing its head; lion makes him a prehistoric figure ­ Heracles is a shaman because that’s a person who has a way with animals and can “catch and release” which means bring them back alive ­ Heracles is the apotheosis- turned into a god if you are selected at death ­ Nessos took Heracles and Deaneira (his wife) across the river and tries to kidnap Deaneira so Heracles shot him with a poison arrow and as he’s dying Nessos tells Deaneira to come take his shirt because it’s full of magical blood that will make Heracles love her; later when Heracles is about to go to war, Deaneira gives Heracles the shirt but instead of love, it’s really poison and revenge from the syntar, so it poisons Heracles and puts his skin on fire ­ When Heracles is a baby, 2 snakes go into his nursery but Heracles grabs both of them and strangles them and this is the first time that Heracles performs miraculous strength ­ Heracles kills the lion of Kithairon and this is the lion that he takes the skin form and wears it and uses his face as a helmet ­ The Minyans attacked Thebes, Heracles takes on all the soldiers and kills them and then after marries Megara and they have kids btu Hera strikes Heracles mad and he kills them all; because of this goes into exile and goes to Delphi and he is told to move to Tiryns and serve Eurystheus for 12 years ­ Eurystheus (king of Tiryns) was a bad master and says 2 of the labours don’t count and the intention was to kill him ­ Once he was out of the power of Eurystheus, he is hosting Ipitos but then kills him so Heracles sells himself to slavery and wants to get purified but now has this dread disease and because he is refused an oracle he tries to steal a tripod and wrestles withApollo but then Zeus breaks them up and gives Heracles a prophecy to be a slave for 3 years for Hermes ­ After being a slave for 3 years, Heracles sails against Troy for the first sack of Troy (this is his second time to Troy) ­ King Laomedon refused to pay Heracles after he kill the sea monster ­ Heracles want to be burned on a pyre to get free of the pain of the poison so Poias lit the pyre for him and Heracles gave him his bow and arrow and Heracles got lifted up on a cloud to join the gods Similarities between Heracles and Gilgamesh ­ Also think to compare to Enkidu because of the importance of animals and his link to super old ways of life ­ Link to Gilgamesh because they’re both old stories so they may go way back to the same person ­ They are both ambivalent between god and man, their labours free a city from a monster, they both do a round trip to the underworld ­ Heracles 12 Labours ­ Nemean Lion o Heracles comes back carrying it alive and Eurystheus freaks out so makes a bronze jar so he can hide in ­ Lemaean Hydra o Offspring of Typhon that has many heads and one of them is immortal so when you chop it off, 2 heads grow back so Heracles needed help from a sidekick Iolous so when he chops off the head, Iolous will light it it on fire so no more heads grow back ­ Cerynitian Hind o Had to bring back alive ­ Erymanthian Boar o Had to bring back alive ­ Cattle ofAugeias o Shovel manure from the cattle and he said will you pay me if I get it done all in one day and he said yes because it’s impossible but Heracles uses his powers and has a river clean it up but he still won’t pay him ­ Stymphalian Birds o Was told to make the birds go away so he shot them all ­ Cretan Bull o Bring back alive ­ Mares of Diomedes o Horse bring back alive ­ Belt of Hippolyte o Amazons were all a fem
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