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Classical Studies 2200 Midterm: CLASSICS-NOTES-Midterm-2

Classical Studies
Course Code
CS 2200
Aara Suksi
Study Guide

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- Gilgamesh
King of Uruk (Mesopotamia – 2500 BCE)
Evidence: texts from 12 Akkadian tablets (700BCE) found in Ziggurats
Parents: Lugalbanda(mortal king) and Ninsun(goddess)
Gilgamesh caused chaos in Uruk (sleeping with unmarried girls) so the
gods created Enkidu (clay + water) who is tamed by a woman (prostitute)
Gilgamesh & Enkidu slay Humbaba (Hell Bull)
Gilgamesh insults Ishtar(goddess)
Ishtar forced him to kill Enkidu
Gilgamesh struggles with mortality and then leaves the city in search of
Travels to Utnapishtim (world’s limit)
Mets a female bartender who says if he can stay awake for 1 week he will
learn immortality, but that he should eat, drink, and have sex first
He declines and fails, but still learns unique knowledge
Returns home to rule Uruk
- Perseus
Parents: Danae + Zeus
Doesn’t have a problem with women
Doesn’t visit the Underworld
Prophecy that Danae’s son would destroy Acrisius (Danae’s father)
Danae imprisoned in a tower, but Zeus(rain) impregnated her
Acrisius sent Danae and Perseus out to sea (Zeus saved them and sent to
Perseus is sent to retrieve Medusa’s head in order to get Polydectes to
stop harassing his mother
Athena advises Perseus to trick the Graiae (take their shared eye) into
helping him find the nymphs
Nymphs give Perseus: Cap of Invisibility, Winged Sandals, Pouch
Hermes also gives him Adamantine Sword
Perseus also takes a polished shield
Perseus uses the shield to cut off Medusa’s head and escapes on the
Pegasus (created from her neck-wound)
Perseus turns Atlas(titan) to stone for offending him
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Perseus rescues Andromeda (sacrificed for her mother, Casiopeia’s
hubris) and claims her hand in marriage
Perseus returns to Seriphos and turns Polydectes to stone
Perseus returns all his gifts and gives Medusa’s head to Athena (used on
her shield)
Perseus returns to Argos and accidently kills Acrisius
Perseus and Andromeda are Catastarized by Athena
- Heracles
Parents: Alkmene + Zeus
Origins with Perseus and Andromeda
Heracles kills the snakes Hera sent to kill him
Zeus tried to get Heracles to nurse on Hera, but she stops him  Milky
Way created
Heracles learned archery from Chiron (wise centaur)
Heracles has a ‘heroic’ appetite (food + sex)
Heracles is driven mad by Hera and murders his wife and children
To atone for his crime, an Oracle at Delphi tells him to serve King
Eurystheus who makes Heracles perform the 12 labours
1. Kill the Nemean Lion
Invincible skin (Heracles uses its own claw to skin it)
Wears the skin as his armor
2. Kill the Hydra
Heads regrow (Heracles burns them after decapitation)
Dips his arrows in the blood (fatal poison)
3. Capture the Arcadian Boar
4. Capture the Cretan Bull
5. Tame the Thracian Horses (man-eating)
6. Kill the Stymphalian Birds
7. Clear out the Augean Stables
8. Retrieve the Belt of Hippolyte
Amazon Queen (Heracles dominates her – seduction/murder)
oAmazons carry moon-shaped shields and dress like
9. Retrieve the Golden Hind
10. Retrieve the Golden Apples of Immortality
Garden of Hesperides
11. Capture Geryon’s Cattle
A Giant from the Underworld
12. Cerberus
Capture the 3-headed hell hound
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Heracles shot Hades
Heracles pushes someone off a cliff and must again seek atonement by
serving Omphale (foreign queen)
Heracles’ second marriage is to Deianeira (man-destroyer) who is
assaulted by a centaur named Nessus
Heracles slays Nessus but he tells Deianeira that his blood = love potion
Deianeira uses the potion on Heracles’ shirt and it burns his flesh  Death
Apotheosis: Heracles mortal self resides in the Underworld, and his divine
self resides on Olympus with Hebe
- Theseus
Parents: Aegeus/Poseidon + Aethra
Aegeus (and Poseidon) sleeps with Aethra and leaves a sword/sandals
under a boulder for a possible son which Theseus retrieves when he
comes of age
Theseus travels to Athens, clearing the road of threats
Corynetes(Bronze Club)
Procrustes(Torture Bed)
Scerion(Robbed people and threw them to a giant man-eating
Cretan Bull(Brought back Alive)
Sinis(Bent-over Pine Trees)
Wild Boar (Typhon’s son)
Aegeus’ new wife Medea tries to kill Theseus but Aegeus stops/banishes
Theseus volunteers to go to Crete to kill the Minotaur (Appease King
Minos’ Sacrifice) and his father says to set his sail colour to Black(dead) or
White(salive) when he returns
In Crete, Theseus is helped by Ariadne(fell in love with him) and
Daedalus(built the Labyrinth) and using string he kills the Minotaur and
returns safely
Theseus sails home with Ariadne, but leaves her on the island of Naxos,
and forgets to change his sail to White, so his father jumps off a cliff
Ariadne kills herself or marries Dionysus
Theseus seduces the Amazon Queen Hippolyte and has a son Hippolytus
Theseus marries Phaedra who (by Aphrodite’s command) falls in love
with Hippolytus, She kills herself leaving a note saying Hippolytus raped
and killed her, so Theseus asked Poseidon to kill Hippolytus
Theseus and Pirithous kidnap Helen for Theseus and descend to the
Underworld to capture Persephone for Pirithous, but Hades traps them
Heracles rescues Theseus (but not Pirithous)
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