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Classics Midterm 2 Lecture.docx

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
David Lamari

Classics Midterm 2: Class Notes Polis of Elis  “Olympic village”  everything is dominated by athletics  Downtown is called “hippodrome”  They also raced horses in downtown core  Like going to Austria where everything is about Mozart (Mozart street, Mozart museum, Mozart shops)  3 gymnasiums (Athens had 3 and was ten times the size)  Olympics overseen by Agonothetes (sponsor) *agon can mean “meet”  Sometimes there were two sponsors  They were private citizens who volunteered for all of the expenses Officials and Administrators  Usually 10 judges but number changed over time (Hellanodikai)*  New set of judges each Olympiad  Had complete say over the winner of the Olympics  Start training ten months before the Olympics  They lived in special quarters  Trained by “Guardians of the Law” o Experts of the Olympics  Elis paid for housing and feeding, renovating Olympics and food  Boule (50 member Olympic council) Truce  Every community had to officially recognize the truce  Once they did, they put up inscriptions in each town and publically bound themselves  Truce guaranteed safe travel throughout Greece to the Olympics regardless of what else is going on  Textbook says truth is only for a month prior to Olympics but probably is longer b/c the athletes needed to be there a month before the Olympics Participants Arrive at Elis  Are you a Greek Citizen?  Do you have a criminal record?  Have you been training for ten months?  If you didn’t speak Greek properly they might become suspicious  Otherwise it was just an honour system  Assign you to men or boys (andres or paides)  Note: 80% of Greeks had their own farm b/c it was considered degrading to work for someone else. Maybe some athletes had family take care of their farm while they competed  not everyone had to be rich  Some athletes withdrew during training  Note: story about guy who didn’t exercise, got sick and had to exercise to keep his health and won the entire Olympic circuit Site Preparation  During the year the site was a pasture ground, tourist area  Some people are always at Olympia (butchers, priests…)  Sponsor starts paying to level ground, make starting gates, white earth  Note: Up until 3 century BC, athletes went down to assist clear and prepare Olympic site  Prof can’t remember where he got this info but he mentions it in class Journey from Elis to Olympia  Everyone (organizers, administrators, horses for races, oxes for sacrifices, spectators, athletes, entourage) goes on foot to Olympia  Athletes take oath before leaving Elis, swearing that they worked to be worthy of the Olympics and to uphold the dignity of the Olympics  Everyone had to arrive the day before events begin th  They arrive the morning of Aug 7  Before judges can enter sanctuary they must be bathed in pig’s blood to purify them, then washed off with water Arrival  Everyone goes to Bouleterion or building for the boule (council)  Council members take oath that they won’t be bribed and have not been bribed  Athletes, trainers, brothers, and fathers have to take an oath that they will do nothing evil against the games  They get re-assessed (are you a Greek citizen, do you have a criminal record…)  Happens in front of the Greek people  Boule then categorizes athletes as adult or boy  Sometimes Greek people would point out the ineligibility of athletes  No documentation therefore its one person’s word against another’s Note: there is no record of a judge accepting bribes During (after 472 BC) Day 1 = Aug 8  First herald and trumpet contests on an altar (this is not on aug 8 though) o The winner announces athletes as competitions begin o There is still the opportunity to call them out for being ineligible  Day 1: Parade through Olympia o Everyone goes to 63 altars making sacrifices  Chariot Races  Stadium  Pentathalon  Sacrifice to King Pelops at his temple (Peloppion) Day 2 – Aug 9  Parade & sacrifice  Boys events Day 3  Foot races  Full contact events o Wrestling o Boxing o Pankration o Hoplitodromos  You could request for order to be changed slave had to stand by with switch to prevent athletes from peeking at their letter when they pull it to determine who they are matched with Day 4  Awards o Presentation of the crown of olives  Banquet o Ambassadors provided food o Athletes and officials invited o Held in prytanion (sp) o Everyone else could be involved outside Prizes  Crown of olive leaves  Ribbon and palm branch (symbol of honour)  Crowd threw flowers and leaves, take victory lap w/ people cheering  Old man who won did victory lap with sons who won  they said to him “die now, you will never be happier”  Your own city would give you lots of other awards The Olympic Experience  Most memorable thing of a lifetime for the Greeks Philosopher describes what happens to spectators: “When they first come into the stadium, its as if they’ve come under the influence of magic/drugs (word could mean both). They forget everything they have ever learned, and do/say the first thing that comes to their head.” The Money Games  Chrematitic means money  Hundreds of chrematitic games  These games were not as prestigious as the stephanitic games  Stephanitic vs Chrematitic o Multiple prizes at chrematitic games o Judges had input in the outcomes (subjective) in chrematitic games o Chrematitic events were more militaristic  Panathenaia: All- Athens o For Athena o Most famous money game o Social functions of money games o Held yearly  Greater Panathenaia o “Open” every fourth year to all Greeks o Organized in 566 o New events included o A tyrant created the greater version of this festival o Every winner received a vase  This symbolizes free advertising  These vases were full of oil  When the oil was sold, the vase went with it, therefore the vases were scattered all over the Mediterranean o 2 sets of administrators  Selected at random  First set: secular activities  Second set: sacred activities  Funds: public and private o Lasted somewhere in between 7-10 days  Panathenaic way  Held right in the middle of the city  City was transformed for these games  Stadium built in 4 Century  Open events  Day 1: Musical contests: boys and men  Day 2: athletic contests: boys/youths  Day 3: open athletic contests: men  Day 4: Open equestrian contests  Athenian events – only Athenians could compete  Day 5: Pyrriche—militaristic dance for young boys to show off their skills  Day 5: Hoplomachia – one on one combat (wore shields and used spears)  Day 5: Equestrian o Anthippasia: Mock cavalry battle o Javelin throwing from horseback  Goal was accuracy  Day 5: o Euandria: beauty contest and goodness o Torch race  Never part of the ancient Olympics  Relay race with a torch, if the torch goes out then you are disqualified  Went throughout the entire city o Evening feasts  Day 6: Panathenaic procession (parade) o Ended in the Parthenon with animals and gifts and a robe for Athena  Day 7: o Apobates – charioteer and armed soldier on a four horse chariot  Armed soldier hops in and out of the chariot, running beside the chariot o Boat race  Day 8: Feasting and partying o Prizes: olive oil, wreaths of gold and cash were given o Tribes (similar to our provinces) picked top teams in their region to compete against other tribes o Athena  Goddess of intelligence, strategy/tactics  Invented pottery, flute  The Asklepeia o For God of healing (Asklepios) o Part of a healing center o Held a few meters away from Epidauros in a sanctuary o The sanctuary was where people came to get cured  You would come to sleep at this place, have a dream and then tell the priests about it so they can tell you what to do to get back on track with a healthy life o Had a hidden entrance into the stadium (krypte esodos) o Had a theater at Epidauros for the mousikos agon  Eleutheria games (Freedom) o Held in Larissa o Open only to Larissans o In honour of Zeus o Had gymnikos agon, military games, poetry competitions o Taurotheria  Similar to a rodeo  Sparta o Largest polis in Greece o Spartan Arete o Communal society, where work was done by enforced servants o Therefore Spartans worked on military achievements o Children did not live with their parents, lived in groups and were trained together o Could not display any athletic achievements on tombstone before military achievements o Entered olympics but not any other games  Dominated footraces, but no Spartan name was seen for contact sports (pyx, pale, pankration etc.)  Scholars say it was because in contact sports you would have to admit defeat o Spartans stole cheese
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