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Classics Midterm 3 Lecture.docx

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
David Lamari

Classics Class Notes: Midterm Three Athletic Architecture  Anacreon fr. 358 o “Once against, golden haired eros has hit me with the purple ball of love, and command me to play with a girl with intricately laced sandals; but she, because she is from well-built Lesbos, she reproaches my hair, since its white, and gapes after another girl…”  Athletic complex (gymnasion) is comprised of: o Palaestra  Open courtyard with porticoes colonnades  Peristyle  Exedrae o Gymnasion  Shares a wall with the palaestra  Two more walls perpendicular to that wall  Dromos (practice- track)  Part of the gymnasion  Xystos: covered tracked  Paradromis: open track beside it o Bath house  Stadion  Vitruvius, Roman Architect, 1 C AD  Athens 3 Gymnasia o Academy, Lyceum, Cynosarges o First two built by tyrant o State-run with private money Education  Education in the classical era o Not compulsory o Boys 7-14  Private tutoring  Discipline and memorization  Arete and kalokagthia o Boys 14+  3-4 years at the athletic complex  Plato (academy); Aristotle (lyceum)  Philosophy, rhetoric, athletics  Collective conversational  Athletic complexes o Training for body and mind o Social hangouts o For the body and intellect o Wealth and leisure (liberal arts)  Education in Hellenistic era o Gymnasiarchos, Paidonomos, Didaskolos, Paidagogos o Boys (two categories) and Ephebes o New attitude toward education o Female education  Homosexuality  Ephebeia o Sophronistes and kosmetes  Aristotle said that kosmetes over look the general education for boys and Sophronistes were teachers for military training o Training and public service Hellenistic Sport  Begins with the death of Alexander the Great (356-323) o Conquered Persia and created an empire o Imposed Greek language as the official language (conquered peoples still spoke their original language, but their rules and laws were in Greek) o Athletics under Alexander  His attitude  “Ill only compete if I compete against kings”  Don’t know if he liked sports o He saw statues from a polis of people who had won at the Olympics, and asked what these athletes did when Persia invaded them (cutting athletics down)  The army  Military campaign o Sports was just for amusement to relieve soldiers o Hired athletes to come to play in front of the soldiers  Athletic spectacle  No list of winners, appears they weren’t celebrated  Imports athletes to entertain  When his best friend and lover died, he held a big competition for his death  Athletic guilds  Guild is a collection of people who lobby  Another sign of professionalism  Hellenization o Rush to build stadiums and gymnasium’s o To be educated in as much of Greek culture as possible  Isostephanitic Games o Soteria of Greece, Nikephoria of Pergamon, Sebesteia of Judaea, Isolympic Games of Naples o Competitions by new kings o Good propaganda o Very well funded, no expense spared for these games o Had the status of the stephanitic games  Iso= equal to  Had all the benefits of the stephanitic games (same set up, same competitions, same prizes)  Stadium at Kaisareia Sebasteia o Got money from the wife of the roman emperor to build it  Maccabean Revolt o Young Jewish citizens would strip on Sabbath which was very prohibited o Wanted an overthrow on their non-Jewish rulers o Began wearing very Jewish clothing  The fate of Hellenic Sport o Greek athletics under the roman empire o The Romans weren’t sure what to make sure of Greek athletics o They were very fond of poetry and art but weren’t comfortable with the Greek obsession with athletics and nudity Professionals and Amateurs  Perks for athletics o Victors got parades when they returned home  Knocked down part of the wall for the athlete to make his entrance o Free meals  Detractors o Galen: denies any benefits to athletics  Said athletes don’t even know if they have a brain  Professionals and Amateurs o Were ancient Greek athletes professionals?  In AGA, Miller says that he cant answer that unless professional can be defined o Eiselastic  Someone who won a Isostephanitic/stephanitic game  Roman emperors set up a policy for all the stephanitic and Isostephanitic game  Any Eiselastic athlete, forever after from the list (proof of winners), when you attend any of the other games in later years, your food and lodging is paid for as long as you have to be there for  Expenses involved in an athletic career  Funding for athletes o Managers and state funding  Athletic unions and guilds Athletics and Society  Story of a guy who selects his son in law by having an athletic competition  Athletic metaphors used in writings  Absolute dates o Every Greek community had their own way of keeping track of days of the month, but there were “absolute” dates. The winner of the stadion at the Olympics was used as a universal dating system  Mimesis o Greek art doesn’t seem peculiar to use o It tried to imitate reality o It was praised by how lifelike or realistic it was o In other cultures, this was not the case o They weren’t trying to be realistic o It was not the goal of the cultures roundabout Greece to produce realistic art o Mimesis: imitation (not just art, also theater and poetry)  Kouroi: young boy statues o Put either as a grave marker or given in thanks or prayer for the gods o Gradually become more and more realistic (no attempt to get the musculature right)  Diskobolos o Original Greek bronze statue is lost o Roman copies show a man throwing a discus  Doryphoros o Real revolution in Greek art, with a classical ideal o Many people still believe that Greek art is the best sort of art o These statues are not realistic o Greeks didn’t actually look like this (too tall) o Its naturalistic, and idealistic o Their faces are always flaccid, even in the middle of a difficult athletic event (face looks dignified)  Diadoumenos o Refer to the same criteria as Doryphoros  Diskophoros o Refer to the same criteria as Doryphoros  Apoxymenos o Statue of him scraping oil and dusting himself  In the Hellenistic era, it is still realistic but not as idealistic (no longer the body beautiful ideal)  Sporting Literature o Pindar and Epinikian  Greatest Greek poet  Epinikian were victory poems  Athletics had a large impact on literature  Isonomia: Athletics and Democracy o Athletics that was influential in the acceptance of isonomia o Isonomia means that everyone should be treated equally under the law o Kroton was the first polis to embrace isonomia o To decide what punishment you were to receive at trial, the accused would pick a punishment and the defendant would pick a punishment, then the jury would pick which one is fair Politics and the games  Stephanitic games were prime opportunity for Greeks from all over to come together and share their Greekness  Free agency in the ancient world: o Polis called Syracuse tried to convince a bunch of athletes to emigrate to their community. In general, to be recognized as a member of a community at least one of your parents had to be born their o We know very little about free agency regarding managers o We hear about different Greek communities luring athletes from another community o In particular, the crop from which top athletes would be chosen was a polis called Kroton. This polis dominated the Olympics (non- equestrian). For a certain period they won 20 out of 71 contests. We hear a lot about richer communities going to these athletes and offering them money to change their citizenship o Syracuse was a very rich community o One Krotonian succumbed and switched. His community was angry so they turned his former house into a prison o One year the ruler of Syracuse tried to bribe many athletes, including one after he had already won the competition o He made sure Syracusans had very impressive tents for the Olympics and brought musicians and singers with them. They were sent down to sing and play their instruments. The lyrics that they sang were commissioned by the tyrant of Syracuse and were in praise of him. Some people laughed, some stripped the tents.  Political Prestige o Communities minted coins in honour of victors  Boycotts and Bans: Curse of Moline o Curse of Moline  Put a curse on her townspeople if they participate in the Isthmian games  Myth  Often we see a top notch athlete who wins at the other 3 games but doesn’t win at Isthmian games  By definition it was impossible for citizens of Elis to win at the Isthmian games because they boycotted them  Stephanitic upstarts o Macedonians held their own version of the Olympics at Mount Olympus o One polis set up money games (in the classical era) at the exact same time as the Olympics… but it didn’t work, the Olympics had too much prestige o This changed in the Hellenistic era due to the sheer scale of the money  The Peloponnesian War o Sparta vs. Athens o Elis and Sparta o Nemea ravaged o Elis formed an alliance with Athens in the year 420. They suddenly announced that the Spartans had broken some part of the Olympics truce, and if they didn’t come in and apologize they were banned from the Olympics for that year o The Spartans refused to pay the fine but abided by the ban o In the 8 previous Olympics, Sparta had won 7 of the 4-horse chariot race. At these Olympics, there was a Spartan who had been breeding and training horses that went to another polis and let them enter his horses. They won, and then they announced that they were the Spartans horses. He was flogged. o Later, Sparta had military troops stationed at Olympia and this same Spartan set up a statue at Olympia honouring himself o Passage of a guy bragging about winning in year 416 (the Spartans couldn’t compete in the year 420). He had entered 7 teams of horses  The 4 Century Breakdown o Justhbefore Alexander the Great and Macedonia absorb Greece (early 4 Century) in the period just after the Peloponnesian war, everyone was bitter and conflicts and hatred were still there between people o From the end of the Peloponnesian war, to around when the Macedonians took control, a lot of outrageous things happened in the Stephanitic games o For example, in 390, Corinth (who runs Isthmian games) was captured by a foreign power and that power drove out anyone who ran the Isthmian games and wasn’t in favour of their control.  Corinthians that were left (in favour of the invaders) still organized games. Then another foreign power (Sparta) kicked out the original invaders, and reinstated/brought back all the Corinthian citizens who had been forced to leave originally (the games are still held)  They wanted their Corinthians to hold the games, so it was held twice o In the year 364, a foreign polis captured Olympia, decided that they would run the Olympics…and the Eleans decided that this was unacceptable, and tried to take Olympia back while the Olympics were occurring. The Eleans were unsuccessful, but then later, the Eleans were able to recapture their city. They didn’t recognize those Olympics (called it the year without Olympics) o In the year 235, at the Nemean games, there were two different Nemean games at the same time, and the military commander leading on one side actively captured and enslaved people who were going to attend the other games o There was a real breakdown of standards  Philip II o Greeks are relieved that the war will come to an end o Philip did everything he could to please the Greeks. He won at the Olympics (horse race, issued coins to celebrate that he won. He compensated an athlete and had him escorted to the games when his soldiers interfered with him o Some Greek communities were looting sanctuaries and using the loot to pay their soldiers. Philip made an effort to defend the holy Greek, athletic site o Out of his own pocket he set up many buildings at Olympia (Philipaeium) o Real politician: when he took over Greece, he proclaimed that Macedonia and Greece were a federation. Every Greek polis was to come to a general meeting that would be held wherever a crown game was being held. Clever move, not making them come to Macedonia but making the Macedonians come down to the event Arete  George Wagner started going to the gym at a period in time when it was very suspicious to go to the gym o People thought he was gay because he went to the gym, and even though he wasn’t he just embraced it and became known as “gorgeous George”  Sports as a cultural bellwether (strange how when a problem in baseball occurred, a political scandal happened very close in time to it) o Black sox scandal: 1919  Teapot dome scandal: 1921 o Jackie Robinson 1947  Civil rights act 1964 o Pittsburgh drug trials 1985  Nancy Reagan “Just say no”: 1986 o “Juiced by Jose Canseco: 2005  Restrictions on genetic experimentation o Heavy fines for concussion: 2010  ???  Mythologizing athletes o Pindar (Fl. 498-446)  Famous poet o Epinikian structure  Wrote these poems for athletes for money  In his poems the losers were slinking home by back alleys  He talks about the winner and his family and their hometown, including the God from that town o Pythian 8 (8 poem about a Pythian victory)  You have won a prize of honor at Megara, and in the valley of Marathon; and at the local contest of Hera you were dominant in action with three victories, Aristomenes.  The valley of marathon: east coast of Greece right next to Athens  Hera is the patron goddess of Argon  Laying down credentials as an athlete  And you fell from above on the bodies of four opponents, with grim intent; to them no cheerful homecoming was allotted, as it was to
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