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Classics Midterm 3 Textbook Notes.docx

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
David Lamari

Classics Midterm 3 Training The Buildings  Gymnasion and Palaistra: often gymnasion was used as a term for either even in antiquity  Palaistra o Connection of building with wrestling (pale) o Vitruvius was architect who made manual of buildings o Double colonnade in north to protect from storms and sun  Exedrai – bays with seats, classes held  Ephebeion – mid-north side of courtyard, where young men learn heritage and traditions of land. Aleimmatta (anointing accounts) set up for young men  Peristyle – large, central courtyard surrounded by columns o Area filled with skammata (pits)  RIGHT OF EPHEBION: o Korykeion – punching bag room o Konisterion – dust room o Loutron – at the corner of the colonnade, bath  LEFT OF EPHEBION o Elaiothesion – oil storage room o Cluster of rooms with furnace and hot bath o *Room XIV was probably an apodyterion  Vitruvius doesn’t mention sphairisterion (ball room) but apparently they are widely used.  Palaistras are different in various places (at Delphi the emphasis is on the bath not the courtyard due to the rugged terrain. There is also more water available at Delphi and little at Olympia. Gymnasion  3 colonnades surrounding open space (one open side)  stadion  xystoi – single colonnades, provide cover for track  Open space between colonnades – practise space for javelin and diskos  Vitruvius: “Behind a xystos the stadium is to be planned so that large crowds can watch the athletes in comfort” Things found in gymnasion at Delos  98 shields statues  helmet box stone herms  torches  tubs  amphora’s  sundials Akademy and Lykeion were training grounds like college campus  Also trained successful poets, playwrights, politicians, philosophers  No reason to separate activities of the mind from those of the body  These places were first and last gymnasia The People  Gymnasiarchos – leader of gymnasion. In charge of building, staff, and education program o Elected annually o Usually between 40 and 60 yrs old o Pictured on vases holding cane & watching lessons  Paidonomos – Appointed to assist gymnasiarchos o Decided which boys graduated o Usually over 40 yrs old o Helped in staff selection o Settled disputes among teachers (esp. regarding # of students in classes)  Didaskalos – teacher (elected – salary based on order elected in)  Paidotribai – physical trainers (appointed) o Lower salary than grammar teachers o Ranked higher than music teachers even though their salaries were smaller  Kitharistes or Psaltes – kithara player or singer (appointed)  Infantry Drillmaster  Archery/Javelin Instructor – appointed, shows that physical training was not considered adequate training for war  Paidogogos – “boy leader” o Grandfather or long-time slave o Responsible for bringing boys to/from school o Teenagers made the trip by themselves  Staff size depended on size of city and what was deemed suitable for public education o Emphasis on reading/writing teacher as it is at the top of the list (in AGA) o Competition among teachers, pay based on relative value placed on their aspect of learning o Only children were taught reading and writing o Girls mentioned in the list, were they educated and were there mixed classes?  Evidence that some people were not allowed in the palaistra-gymnasion o Women o Slaves, freedmen nor sons, cripples, homsexuals, commerce people, drunkmen, madmen o Perhaps b/c people who didn’t contribute to common good weren’t supposed to receive oil o Maybe they would corrupt city’s youth o Entering a classroom illegally was punishable by death o Choregos (producer who paid for training of paides) had to be over age of 40 “In order that he might have reached the most self- controlled time of life when he encounters our paides”  Suggests palaistra-gymnasion provided opportunities for homosexual behaviour that city wanted to discourage  Story of Hippothales being in love with Lysis. Sokrates shows H how to capture L’s attention o When they prevent homosexuals from entering gymnasion they are talking about perverts and prostitutes, not young men who created caring homosexual relationships  Kalos – beautiful. Describes attractive young man  Agathos – spiritual goodness  Illegitimate children were a threat to property transfer o Homosexuality as a form of birth control  Ephebeia –two-year training for young men about to become citizens o Categorized by father’s tribe membership o Each tribe has sophronistes- trainer o Kosmetes – elected official who oversaw program o Organized tours to shrines etc so ephoboi could grasp heritage o Men tested to ensure they were literate o Attended philosophers’ lectures o Two paidotribai to oversee exercises (physical trainers) o Other teachers taught military skills o At end, issued spear and petasos (hat) and sent on border patrol o Some groups were rewarded / praised for love of honour etc Athletics as Entertainment in Hellenistic/Roman Periods  “Hellenistic” = Greekish  Hellenic = Greek  Alexander the Great & Macedonian Army created largest empire south at the Nile and East at Indus o Collapsed when Alexander died o Spread Greek as common language o Encouraged Greek Athletics  New Testament was first written in Greek so it could be spread throughout the Hellenistic world  Games staged to entertain Alexander’s troops o Don’t know if soldier’s themselves staged them (would mean the soldier’s were also athletes)  Brought wagon loads of dust and goat skins similar to athletes o Names of winners not recorded o Musicians and actors were never present with Alexander at Pythian games, coincidence? o Dioxippos: entertainer as athlete for Alexander  Koragas (a Macedonian like Alexander) challenged Dioxippos to a duel. Dioxippos won which made Alexander very upset. Eventually because of the falling out, Dioxippos committed suicide  Aitolian League established games called Soteria (saviour) after Aitolians saved Delphi from Gaul invasion. o isoPythian games (equivalent to Pythian games) in Mousikos Agon o isoNemean in gymnikos agon o iso in regard to age categories and prizes o Aitloians sent embassies around Greek world to seek recognition of their games o Insisted that winners received same honours as those at Pythian and Nemean games  Nikephoria Games of King Eumenes II of Pergamon o isoPythian musical competitions o isoOlympic nude and equestrian competitions o iso in regard to age categories and prizes  Sebasteia games in Judea o King Herod announced a gynikoi, mousikoi and hippikoi agones, and added gladiatorial bouts o Dedicated these games to the roman emperor Augustus o Made them stephanitic and quadrennial  IsOlympic games o Created by the roman emperor Augustus in Naples o Included sacrifices to the emperor and cash prizes for the musical competitions which were not similar to the Olympic games, so we infer that isOlympic means parts are similar to the Olympics  Jewish people became more “Hellenized” by the way Jason had brought a gymnasion to Jerusalem o This was done through physical and intellectual training and participation in the Greek games of Tyre  Athletics were less favoured in the west because the Romans were very suspicious of nudity but eventually when they had contact with Corinth they ended up participating in the Isthmian games  Many Greek vases were found in Etruscan tombs o The Etruscans were very ambivalent about nudity as well and they painted loincloths on all the naked people on the vases  Nero o A roman man who loved all things Greek o He was a great kithara player and when he realized that the Romans did not appreciate his music, he sailed off to Greece o He ordered that all the festivals be held during his year visit o He broke tradition at Olympia by introducing a music contest in the athletic games o No one was allowed to leave the theater during his performances no matter how urgent the reason (the gates were kept locked) o Stories of women giving birth and men pretending to be dead because they were so bored o He insisted on announcing his own victories, which lead him to participate in the herald competition o He ordered that all statues of previous winners be torn down and thrown out o At Olympia he added a 10-horse chariot race just for him and even though he didn’t complete the race he was still awarded the crown o At his departure to Rome he announced that Olympia had its freedom and anyone could have Roman citizenship, also provided the judges with large amounts of money o He arrived back in Rome wearing a purple robe and his crown on a chariot  Capitolian Games o Created by Roman emperor Domitian (people extremely feared him) o Quadrennial contest in honour of Jupiter Capitolinus o Included music, equestrian and gymnic competitions o Also offered a race of maidens and competitions in prose recitation  Periodonikes meant circuit winner; someone who had won at Olympia, Delphi, Isthmia and Nemea  Titus Flavius Archibus was known for his many victories and named “the first of mankind” to accomplish a given sequence or combination of victories Professionals and Amateurs  Amateurism: competition for its own sake  Athletes competing in the Roman festivals had to appear a month before to train o Given a food allowance and a place to sleep  Eiselastic games meant that the victor would return home to a grand procession and a section of the town wall was to be torn down for him to pass through o Equivalent of being given a key to a town  There were jobs open to athletes after their competitive careers had ended  Galen o Said that athletes don’t even know if they have a brain because they are so stupid o Said athletes are in the worst health conditions because they exert themselves too much, have irregular sleeping patterns, force feed themselves etc. o Says they do nothing productive with the strength they have  Possibility that trainers were also receiving money for a winner o Evidence seen in a letter from Hierokles about a promising boy named Pyrrhos  Gymnastai peddlers are people who put their own interests first and peddle the arete of their athletes  Many admirers of Greek athletics blamed money since it breeds professional athletes, which breeds corruption  Only through strict amateurism can the true value of sport be realized  The word amateur derives from Latin, and it means to love something  Professional derives from a Latin word and means public declaration  There is no mention of money in either definition  Therefore, you can be a professional and love doing your job and receive money at the same time  The book proves that the Greek admirers of athletics were wrong to say money was the issue because even back in the chrematitic and games of Patrokles, money was given as a prize  If you won multiple victories, that meant multiple meals in the prytaneion (these were an enduring economic benefit). Any money earned would pay for rent, clothes etc. since they did not have to pay for food Politics and The Games  Panhellenic games brought the Greek world together and promoted international communication and understanding  Any political rivalries were ignored for the time the festivals went on for  However, the games also promoted competition between city-states between competitors  An athlete had to be a representative member of the city-state it was playing for  There was evidence that city-states would buy athletes from other states to participate on the Olympics on their behalf o Example: Astylos first played for his native town of Kroton, but then ran for Syracuse in later years. Astylos won the hoplitodromos, diaulos and stadion races After the switch, Kroton pulled down his statue and turned his house into a prison  Syracuse was known for luring athletes onto its team o Antipater resisted the temptation to become a member, but Dixon did not  Kroton was known as the most dominant city-state, next were Elis and Kerkyra  Demokedes (a famous Krotonian doctor) said “he who finishes last in for the Krotonians, is first among all Greeks”  It is unknown how Kroton got to be so dominant, but the author in AGA gives his own opinion  Victors were printed on coins (example: Phillips was printed onto a coin that became so popular it was still used a few years after his death)  Since the games were a time for international understanding, it would be assumed that the sanctuaries would be tranquil and most of the time they were o Exception: Delphi refused to let Athenians into the Pythian Oracle until the Athenians paid the fine they were given for bribing someone  The Curse of Moline o Rivalry between Isthmia and Olympia o There was a war between Herakles and Augeas of Elis o Augeas was routing the forces of Herakles at the announcement of the sacred truce for the Isthmian games o The sons of Aktor were helping Augeas and were theoroi for the games, but they were ambushed and killed by Herakles o Moline demanded justice from the Argives, but they said no o Moline (the sister of the youths) but a curse on the men and said that they would never compete in the Isthmian games again o This curse is said to have truly worked, however none of the Eleans had ever participated in the Isthmian games and continued not to which could be a clear cause as to why they did not participate  In the 420 Olympics, there was a rivalry between the Eleans and Lakedaimonians due to an unpaid fine, they were told they could not participate in any event at the festival o However, Lichas entered in horses under another name for the four- horse chariot race and won, when he won he told everyone that he was a Lakedaimonians and it was feared that there would be trouble, but they kept their peace throughout the games  In 399/98 the Lakedaimonians invaded the altis o The Eleans defended themselves by climbing up to the roofs on tall buildings o After the battle, Lichas set up a statue of himself and said he was the 420 tethrippon winner, but still the records in Elis record it was the polis of Thebes who won o The Athenian-Spartan rivalry influenced the Lakedaimonians excommunication from Elis  In 416, Athenian Alkibiades entered 7 chariots in the tethrippon and finally won o He saw his victory as a sign of Athens’s continued power and a future victory in the Peloponnesian war  Nemean games were removed from Nemea in 415, when there was destruction by a fire o There was also bronze spearheads which meant that a human had deliberately attacked the architecture of Nemea  Destruction in Isthmia in 390 o There was hostility among the Argives and Corinthian exiles at the Isthmian games, and at the end of the festival, the temple of Poseidon set on fire but no one knew who had done it  Armed battle in the Altis during the Olympic games of 364 o The Arcadians had taken over Elis the year before but still planned to celebrate the Olympics o Even though the Eleans were not known for being war-like, they invaded the Altis and fought the Arcadians until they retired due to too many losses  Aratos in Argos o Aratos was a political leader in a city north of Argos o The Nemean games had been moved to Argos for this certain year, and whenever an athlete was traveling to Argos to compete, he would capture them and sell them as slavery  Whenever a city would take over another city, they would leave a mark in that city o Example: Spartans left a shield on top of the temple of Zeus in Athens, the Athenians built a stoa at Delphi,  Phillip II of Macedonia o Won many equestrian events and was celebrated by being put on coins etc o He was a protector of Olympic tradition and when his soldiers stole items from Phrynon, he returned them after realized it was the sacred truce month o He took over Delphi where he put up a statue of himself and reconstructed the temple of Apollo o The council invited him to lead the fourth sacred war o He constructed a building in honour of himself at Olympia, in a location where every visitor and athlete would have to pass by it  This was made after his victory in the battle of Chaironeia  No matter what the political issue was, the games always went on no matter what o They went on for a millennium and never once were canceled  In modern day Olympics, if a political movement starts then they have been canceled Athletics and Society  The victors list consists of each victors name, hometown, and the event they won  The official updated register was maintained by the Eleans in the gymnasion at Olympia  Each city-state in Greece kept its own records in accordance with its own institutions and its own calendar o Each city-state could name the months of the lunar year differently from another city-state  Until 600 BC, there are no signs of realistic statues or even semi-life sized structures until we see life-sized sculptures of boys called Kouroi o Legs close together with one foot forward, arms straight down at the sides, facial features, nude etc.  Greek carvers tried to show motion in their statues of the young boys o Statue of a discophoros, twisting his body with his arm back gripping a discus o Diskobolos by Myron  One of the most famous statues because of the details, it truly depicts the motion o Diadomenos  Made by Polykleitos  Nude athlete next to clothes hanging on a bush, wrapping a victory fillet around his neck  One leg is straight, bearing weight on the other—look as if he is about to take a step (motion)  Elbows are bent  This statue is known for the look of balance, stability and motion  Literature o Poems were made for Olympic victors o Favourite genre’s were victory ode or Epinikian poetry  Protagoras was the first person to teach antiquity and the originator of maxim  Plato and Socrates use athletic metaphors in their work  Isonomia – equality of right (democracy) o Since everyone was nude it was hard to tell what your social status was o Kroton was one of the first city-states to become a democracy o Kroton therefore never entered the tethrippon race because that was for people will lots of wealth o Athens became a democracy with the defeat of the Persians  Socrates’ death o Year 399 o Arrested for corrupting the minds of Athens youth o Socrates made a logical argument and said he should be punished in the prytaneion with free meals o The court didn’t like this and sentenced him to death Arete  Kohne Chapter 1—‘ Bread and Circuses: The Politics of Entertainment’  The public has long since cast off its cares; the people that once bestowed commands, consulships, legions and all else, now meddles no more and longs early for just two things: panem et circenses-bread and circuses”. o This quote kicks start the chapter. In this quote, the author was concern less about the fact that public weren’t interested in bread and circuses instead the author wanted to make a point of public isn’t involved in politics as they should.  This also mean that, people didn’t care anymore about politics as  a) Bread wasn’t provid3ed by govt as people thought  b) Some said, circus was attended to escape reality?  Only Roman men were given “5 moodi” of bread, but everyone else had to buy oil/bread/pay rent. If one were to think of the Roman’s social govt assistance, it would be equivalent of “today’s welfare system” for which only Roman men qualified.  The circus offered a free mass spectacle to which 3everyone had access. The show was staged by the state itself, represented by the emperor or an official who made the arrangements for the games.  Famous one: The circus maximum could hold at least 150, 000 people in the second century AD that is around 16-20% of the population of that time.  The oldest games of Rome-Chariot-Racing o According to the legend, Rome owed the institution of ‘games’ to its mythical founder and first king. Romulus, these games were probably chariot-races and horseback races in the honour of God Consus.  Also a famous rape of the Sabine women took place at the same time.  Races on horseback took place rarely and in later centuries must have seemed very old fashioned.  It is possible that a contest of this kind is shown on a marble vase found in the temple of Diana at Nemi, a small country town not far from Rome and now in Copengagen.  In this form of the sport, the jocks would hope from one to other at the full gallop several times during the race.  The oldest games still staged by the emperors were the ludi romani, held in honour of Jupiter to celebrate the “dedication of his great temple on the Capitol in Rome in 509 BC.  Really we don’t know when the move towards holding certain festivals
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