2nd Classics exam study guide

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
Charles Stocking

Classics 2 midterm study sheet Lecture 13: Olympic Games (300BCE) - City state of Elis controlled Olympia o Controlled games from 776 – 660 BCE o Conflict with Pisa as to who controlled the games (Pisa had control from 660 – 572)  Temple of hera was built in this period o Elis officially regained control in 470’s  Built temple of zeus - Heralds from Eliz spread word of Olympics and declared an Olympic truce one month before which forbade armies from entering Elis territory o Granted safe passage for those undergoing pilgrimage to Olympic games o However did NOT put an end to wars in Greece (just a truce, not end of war) - Hellanodikai (Judges) were selected by an Elean council 1. Judges conducted 30 day training period for athletes before games 1. Held in Elis and demonstated their control (began in 470’s when elis regained control) 2. Site of training was the old gymnasium  Had both a practice and “scacred track” (one for practice and one for competition -> religious aspect  Wrestling area = plethrion  Third area – “the square” – post competition training  The agora or hippodrome (training for Elian horses) 2. Evaluated athletes for qualification to compete in games 1. Point is to prove your worth 2. Hellanodikai to athletes: “If you have worked so as to be worthy of going to Olympia, if you have done nothing indolent nor ignoble, then take heart and march on; but those who have not so trained may leave and go whereever they like.”  (form of an oath to the gods) 3. Conducted religious services and sacrifices at Olympia 4. Officiated Olympic contests and punished those for cheating 5. Awarded victories to champions - Stadion in offseason was used to plant wheat or for grazing cattle - Skammata were dug during competition - Philosophers at the games  Herodutus performed his histories at Olympia  Soon he became better known than the victors  Plato was humble at the games and did not speak of his high status (refer to passage) - Participation at the games: Real Aristocrat is the spectator, because they get to sit there and watch and be entertained - Spectators had to endure labours as well  Everday labours while watching games: suffering, rain, shortage of water - Olympic festival day: 1  Morning: athletes are subject to examination by Hellanodakai for biological and socio- political status (examined age and physical development)  Philostratus, Gymnasticus 25: “The Olympic “judge of Greece” has to examine the boy athlete on the following points: whether he has a tribe and a native land, a father and a family, whether he belongs to the free citizens and is not a bastard, and finally, whether he is young and not past boyhood.”  Olympic Oath: in the Bouleuterion- Formal oath is administered in front of statue of Zeus. - Olympic Festival day: 2  March of the Hellanodikai (judges come before athletes)  Procession involves visitng 63 alters in the altis (religious aspect)  Zeus fly averter: sacrificing to zeus to avoid being covered in flies  Horse events 1. Tethrippon (4 horse chariot race) 2. Kales (horseback race) 3. Synoris (2 horse chariot race)  Pentathlon (first of gymnikos agones – nude events)  Day 2 Concludes with Chthonic sacrifice to Pelops at his shirne in the Pelopeion. 2. Phyllabolia – victory lap while people throw ribbons and stuff • Sculptures of the Phyllabola; what they took away 3. Day 3: Religious procession and feast  Procession of Hellanodikai, Athletes and offocial ambassadors of city-states.  Sacrifice of a hecatomb (100 oxen) on the ash altar of Zeus.  Thighs burned on the top of Ash-Altar, rest of the meat distributed to the crowds 4. Day 4: Gymnikos Agon Resume  Athlete procession from sactuary to stadion passing by zanes o Zanes were scultpures built to fine the athletes who cheated (had to pay zeus for a statue if you cheated)  Dolichos, Stadion, Diaulos  Heavy Events; Pairing Selection – Choose from a bowl who you matched up against o Wrestling o Boxing o Pankration  Last EVENT: Hoplitodromos – Race in armour; an indication that was will resume after the games end - Day 4: day of victory  Olive branches given out  Festival ends with a victory dinner given by Eleans to the newly crowned winners in the Prytaneion - Olympic games: rites of passage  Pre-Liminal Phase: Separation from Community (30 Day Period of Training in Elis)  Liminal Phase: Period of Testing and Transition(Olympic Games)  Post-Liminal Phase: Re-integration into the Community (Eiselasis)  Individual Returns with new status. nd Lecture 14: Pythian Games at Delphi 2 Panhellenic Crown Competition (Stephanitic Games) - 2 Major Panhellenic Crown Game - Held in Honor of the god Apollo- Son of Zeus and Leto  God of Prophecy, Music, and Performance - Began in 586 BCE - Early Tripod Dedications at Delphi (Iron Age and Later)  Tripod corpus is smaller and less well preserved than at Olympia (But this does not mean less tripods were dedicated)  At Delphi the tripod was associated with the oracle so tripod dedication remained constant Pythia (oracle at Delphi)  Began in 8 century  Greeks from all over came to consultoracle on civic and personal matters  Competeed with other oracles (especially oracle of zeus which gave its prophecies from the wind through the leaves of the sacred oak - Mechanics of Consulting the Pythia (Priestess of Apollo)  Preliminary Sacrifice (to determine if god is willing)  Second Sacrifice inside the temple  Consultation of the Pythia in the Adyton (was very expensive to ask a question) Amphictyonic League -Panhellenic over Local - Inter-State League dedicated to protecting and running sanctuary of Delphi - The First “Sacred War” (ca. 600-590BCE) over use of land between Delphi and the Gulf of Corinth. Land that was declared “property of the god” and was to remain uncultivated - Victory of Amphictyonic League results in:  First Chrematistic (Money) Games: 591 or 586 BCE o Money games were built for the sake of money and wasn’t actually an athletic competition (musical competition) o Mstey games developed into crown games o 1 contest- singing a Hymn to Apollo, Cretan won o Then- Harp, Flute, and Athletic Contests. (Pausanias 10.7.4)  First Stephanitic (Crown) Games: 582/581 BCE - Winner receives a Laurel Wreath Crown  Myth that apollo pursued a mortal woman name daphne before apollo seized her she prayed for deliverance and was transformed into laurel  Value is symbolic and not actual – wreath Events at Pythian Games - Had gymnikos agon – same as Olympia - Had hippikos agon – same as Olympia - Had Mousikos Agon – musical competitions in honor of god Apollo (god of music and performance)  Kithra (lyre) singing competitions (hymn to Apollo – wreath as prize)  Aulos (flute) competition  Winner played during comp for pentathlon  Aulos (singing) competition – abolished in 582 BCE as it was too depressing  Kithara (playing) competition – 582 BCE  Competition in poetry (composition and performance) Temple of Apollo st - 1 archaeic temple was burnt down in 548 BCE (by Pausanias) - Rebuilt by Alkmeonidae Family (Contract not settled until 513 BCE) - Pediments:  Back- Gods vs. Giants  Front- Apollo Standing At Center, flanked by indivdiuals and Chariots (Compare with Pediments at Olympia) - Destroyed by Earthquake in 373 Cylon Episode: - Cylon sought refuge at the parthenon (temple as you can’t kill in temple), was guaranteed safe passage and killed the athenians led by the alkmaenoid familyCommited hubris as they sought him in a safe haven - Athenians put curse on alkeaenoid family - Pesistroid family becomes tyrants of athens - 546-510 BCE; built temple of Athena on Acropolis as sign of Athenian (and Peisistratid) power - In retaliation, Alkmaeonids bribe Delphic Oracle, exploiting Sparta’s opposition to Tyrants. - Every response of oracle to Spartans: “First free Athens.” - Sparta ends Tyranny in Athens; Cleisthenes, an Alkmaeionid, “Father of Democracy” rises to prominence in Athens. Treasuries- Housed Dedications to Apollo: - Conspicuous display of wealth and power - Siphnian Treasury: ca 530 BCE - Siphnos- Island in Cyclades with rich deposits of gold and silver. - General Theme: Eris (Strife) - Front Pediment: Apollo on Chariot (with Artemis) - Back Pdeiment: Zeus with Herakles and Apollo struggling over Tripod. Mythic Politics of Panhellenism: Apollo vs. Herakles • Herakles consults Delphic Oracle on Penance for murder of Iphytus. Oracle does not respond, and Heracles destroys temple and attempts to steal Delphic Tripod in order to found his own oracle. Athenian Treasury (construction from 504 – 470 BCE - commemorating Athenian Victory at Battle of Marathon 490 BCE (first major defeat of Persians duringPersian war). - Depictions –Metopes- Life of Theseus; Labors of Herakles Competition dedications at Delphi - Bronze charioteer  Dedicated by polyzalos (tyrant of Gela in Sicily)  Dedication of his chariot victory  Transfer major power from gela to syracuse in 478  Wearing a kiton (looks like a dress but isn’t – is a man) - Daochos  Dedicated statues of Agias, Agelaos, and others in 335 BCE.  Agelaos- victor in boys stadion, Delphi  Agias Pankration Victor at Olympia 484, 3x Delphi, 5x at Nemea and Isthmia.  Daochos: Delegate from Thessaly for Amphictyonic League (337-332 BCE - Kleobis and Biton or Discouri ----  Earliest existent athletic statues  Dedicated in 590 BCE  Dedicated by argives (city of argos)  Story: brothers carried their mom in a wagon when the oxen didn’t turn up (physical feat) and everyone saw so the mom prayed to ze gods that they could have the best thing for men (death? Like wtf…) and they feasted then died. So the kouros is now a grave marker meant to represent body at absolute peak - Treasuries: Siphnian Treasury, Athenian Treasury - Athletic dedications: Kleobis and Biton, Charioteer; Daochos dedication rd Lecture 15: Isthmian Games: 3 Festival in the Periodos - Isthimian games are money games not crown Sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia - Poseidon = brother of Zeus (god of sea and horses) - Earliest Evidence of Sanctuary: 1050 BCE - Burnt ash and bone and unburnt pottery - Ash also contained votive figurines and jewelry (but of less quantity and quality compared with Olympia) - Focus of early sanctuary: ritual, communal dining; not competitive display of wealth (as at Olympia). - Sanctuary between 2 worlds: Isthmian Pillar, ascribed to Theseus (Plutarch): “Here is not the Peloponnese, but Ionia” “Here is not Ionia, but the Peloponnese (one side faces Ionia and one Peleponnese) History of Corinth - City-State of Corinth controlled the Sanctuary of Isthmia - Dispute between Athens and Corinth over Megara leads to the first Peloponnesian War (between Sparta and Athens) (460) - Corinthian War (395-386) Athens, Thebes, Corinth, Persia vs. Sparta and allies Isthmian Games – 580 BCE - Held biannually (every 2 years) - Had mousikos agon, footraces, pentathlon, and pankratiasts and equestrian events - Victory crown was a pine  Changed to celery out of jealousy of nemean games - Stadion moved away from temple to accommodate more people (nothing to do with religion) Mythic foundation of games: (melikertes/Palaimon) + Theseus Meikertes - Hera drives her husband athamos insane, and he drives his baby off a cliff and as they fall they become divine (divinised) - Ino throws herself and her son, Melikertes into the ocean. - Ino and Melikertes Transformed into sea gods - Mortal Body of Melikertes washed ashore near the Isthmus, and found by his uncle, Sisyphos (Isthmos). - Isthmian Games founded by Sisyphos as funeral games in honor of Melikertes/ Palaemon. Theseus - Heracles and Theseus are cousins - Mythic founding hero of Athens - Father: Aigeus, King of Athens or Poseidon? - Aithra – Mother of Theseus, granddaughter of Pelops - Apollodorus, Anthology p54: Aigeus left under a certain rock a sword and a pair of sandals and told Aithra to send their son to him with the objects when he could roll aside the rock and retrieve them. - Father leaves tokens for Theseus to find under a rock when he is strong enough - Chose to travel to Athens by land as opposed to sea (harder as he wanted to be like Heracles) Labors of Theseus 1. killed Periphetes (Corynetes = Clubber) with his own club 2. Isthmus of Corinth, killed robber Sinis (Pityocamptes = pine bender). 3. Isthmus, Killed Crommyon Sow (Child of Typhaon and Echidna-like labors of Heracles 4. Cliffs of Sciron in Megara, Killed Sciron. Sciron had travellers wash his feet and then kicked them into the sea. Theseus did the same to him. 5. In Eleusis, Theseus killed Cercyon. Cercyon would force travellers to wrestle and killed them. Cercyon’s strength was based on touching the ground so Theseus lifted him from the ground and killed him. 6. Killed Procrustes, or Damastes or Polypemon.Procrustes forced travelers into a bed, if the bed was too short, he chopped off their legs, if the bed was too long he beat and stretched their bodies to the length of the bed. Theseus did the same to Procrustes - Procrustean standards = making people fit standards that are impossible to satisfy - Theseus was more a political hero while Heracles a cultural hero - Theseus killed minotaur - Theseues was credited with inventing wrestling as he was the first to use actual skill to win Isthmian games – Funeral games? (alternate reason) - Sciron and Sinis were thought to be theseus’s cousins so the isthmian games might be in their honour - Games went from more religious to spectacle Similarities between Isthmia and Olympia - Temple of Poseidon was called the palaemion after theseus’s dad palaemon - Temple of zeus was called pelopean and pelops  Heracles dad - Both were established out of anger of hera Pindar’s Isthmian 1 - Wrote a poem for herodotus of thebes, winner of the chariot race (owner was charioteer) - Thebes = Mother city of Pindar and Herodotus - Pindar was in the process of creating a poem when he switched to write this one - Castor – Brother of Helen (of Troy): Charioteer of Sparta (Lacedaemon) - Iolaus – Nephew of Heracles; Charioteer in Thebes And I wish to associate him [Herodotus] with a hymn to Castor or to (15) Iolaus, for they were born to be the mightiest of hero charioteers in Lacedaemon and in Thebes; and in the games they put their hands to the greatest number of contests, and graced their houses with tripods, cauldrons, and golden bowls; whenever they tasted the crowns of victory. Their excellence shines out with brightness in both naked races and in the contests where armed men run, their shields clattering; and also when they threw javelins from their hands, and when they flung discuses of stone for the pentathlon did not exist, but a prize was given for each event. - The Reward of Victory or Price of Victory? - “Different rewards (payments-misthos) bring pleasure to men for different deeds:The shepherd, the ploughman, the bird-trapper,The man whose livelihood is in the sea; For all men strain to keep persistent hunger from their bellies. But the greatest profit is earned by the man who wins a splendid glory in war or in the games, Through praise, which is the choicest address From the tongues of citizens and strangers - Conclusion: “Don’t forget to pay me” - If a man keeps his wealth hidden indoors,Laughing scornfully at others, he does not realize That he will render up his soul to Hades unattended by fame - Saying you can’t die without glory (must pay pindar) Lecture 16: The Nemean Games: Finishing the Periodos (Cycle of Panhellenic Games) Nemean Games (nemea = to graze, was originally used for grazing cattle) - Held in hounour of Nemean zeus (shepherd zeus) - Games conducted every 2 years - Added to stephanitic games (crown games) in 573 BCE - Controlled by small town of Kleonai Foundation myths of nemean games o NEMEAN GAMES WERE NOT CONNECTED WITH HERACLES AND THE NEMEAN LION - Myth of seven against Thebes o Oedipus killed his father and married mother o Discovers some truth and leaves thebes to his son-half brothers (polynices and Eteocles) o Brothers agree to rule thebes in alternate years o Eteocles refuses to step down so polynices attacks thebes with seven heros o All heros die except for Adrastus (former king of argos) - Infant Opheltes o King of nemea had a son and oracle said to ensure health the infant couldn’t touch the ground before he can walk o Seven heroes arrive seeking water o Nurse places baby down on celery and a snake eats the lil nugget o When seven discover dead baby the seven hold funeral games for him o Opheltes becomes known as archomenos (bringer of doom) - Crown was made of celery figs (reminder of Opheltes) - Judges wore black robes in mourning of Opheltes - Old stadion was beside tomb of Opheltes - Tumulus = big grave mound (fake one in picture) Temple of zeus - Had extra long alter for sacrificing - Sacred area was called Epipola - Sacred grove of Cyprus trees – planting pits were discovered History of Nemean games - Argos was an ally of Athens during the Athens Sparta war (peloponesian) - Temple of zeus was destroyed at nemea in 415 (war and earthquake) - Nemean games moved to argos (415-335) BCE - Games held in nemea (335 -271) - Games moved back to argos in 271 BCE Stadion (was 450 meters away from temple of zeus at nemea) - Apodyterion at Nemea- Locker-Room/ Un-Dressing Room o Connected to tunnel which led to stadion Baths at nemea - Gloios – Oil, sweat, and dust (kept sold for high prices) – said to have healing ability, Pindar, Nemean 1 - For Chromius of Aetna (winner of chariot race, syrcusian general - First of nemean odes - Mythic story of Heracles protecting brother from snakes sent by hera - Pindar relates strength through intelligence o Strength through action o Intelligence/ Understaning through advice from others - Pindar saying son of Hagesidamus had strength AND intelligence - Strength attains its end through action And understanding through the advice of those who have the natural talent to forsee the future. Son of Hagesidamus, it is in your nature to make use of both Peridos = winner of all 4 (periodonikai) • Sample cycle: 480 BCE • Olympia 776 BCE (Stadion) – Every 4 years 480 – Olympia  479 – Nemea  478 – Isthmia • Delphi 586 BCE /582 Stephanitic – Every 4 478- Delphi  477 – Nemea  476 – Isthmia years • Isthmian Games 580 BCE –Every 2 Years 476 -Olympia • Nemean Games 573 BCE- Every 2 Years Olympia = Zeus and Pelops Isthmea = Poseidon and Melikertes Nemea = Zeus and Opheltes Pythian Games = only games more strictly in honor of Apollo without worship involved with cult of the dead. Isthmia and Nemea celebrate funeral games for children. – Isthmia for Melikertes/Palaimon – Nemea for Opheltes/Archomenos Lecture 17: Greek athletes as heroes - Ancient greek hero o A religious figure  Dead hum
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