Full 3rd Midterm Study Guide

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Department
Classical Studies
Course
Classical Studies 2300
Professor
Charles Stocking
Semester
Spring

Description
rd Classics 3 Midterm Study Guide Lecture 23: Sport, Spectacle, and the Greek Empire: Philip II, Alexander the Great, and the Hellenistic Era - Greece after peloponesian war (431-404) BCE o Sparta won - 404 – 403: thirty tyrants in Athens - 371 BCE- Sparta’s collapse: o Number of Spartiates (Spartan Citizens) greatly reduced:  479 BCE- 9,000; 371 BCE- 1400. (relied heavily on Spartan allies and Persians to retain rule) - Battle of Leuctra: Sparta marches against city-state of Thebes (only 700 Spartiates and allies) o Thebes defeats Sparta, over 400 Spartiates dead. (300 survivors who fled were allowed to keep citizenship) o Thebes marches on Sparta with 40,000 hoplites and frees Messenian helots. - 370-360 BCE: Sparta loses power: general anarchy among Greek city states - Macedonia ended up taking over all of Greece and Persia Philip II of Macedon - Became king in 359 BCE - Was sent to thebes as hostage as a boy in exchange for brother – Alexander II o Learned greek ways - Alexander was murdered (Phillip became king) - Used strategy to conquer o Phillip gained Athens as an ally  Athens sends hoplites to help fight against Philip • Philip defeats them but sends them home with money • Captured Athenian clony of Amphipolis but returned it to Athens and swore to protect it o Recaptured it wherdAthens was in war with its allies o Philip II helps Amphictyonic League in 3 Sacred War (Phocian War)  Becomes delegate for amphytionic league o Philip uses his political power with the Amphictyonic League and eventually conquers most of Greece and created the “League of Corinth (much like amphytionic league used to protect greece from persian invasions) - 336 BCE Philip is murdered by lover - Early evidence of Macedonians in Olympic Games: o Alexander I, King of Macedon (498-454 BCE) was prevented from competing in Olympic Games because non-Greeks were not allowed to participate  proved his descent from Argos and apparently tied in the stadion foot race. • tied most likely because he was king o King Archelaus I 413-399 BCE: Olympic and Pythian Chariot Race victor 408 BCE) - Philip II was victor at Olympia (commemorated his victories with coinage) o Used sport as propaganda (though his coins) o Won in:  Keles 356 BCE  Tethrippon in 352, 348 BCE (perhaps a synoris victory at Delphi) o Phillip established Phillipeion (337-335 BCE) –  Positioned next to pelopeion to indicate he was worthy of king status andf was meant to be a symbol of him uniting greece Alexander III: Alexander the Great - 336 BCE – take the throne - 335 BCE – when alexander leaves, Athens and thebes revolt against Macedonia o Alex returns and destroys thebes except for house of pindar - Alexander’s conquest of Persia: 334-330 BCE o 334 BCE Battle of Granicus - Alexander defeats Darius  Captures him and his family but darius is murdered by Persian traitor  Has Royal funeral for darius, kills traitor, and secures position as ruler of persia o 331 Found Alexandria in Egypt (New Cultural Center of Mediterranean) o Alexander captures Babylon, Susa, and the Persian capital of Persepolis (which he subsequnetly burned to the ground) - Alexander’s War in India and Last Days, 327 -323 BCE o Invaes india during monsoon season o Troops have a mutiny o Travels through desert as not enough ships (starts with 85,000 men and ends with 25,000) o Dies of alcohol poisoning o Says he will leave his empire “to the strongest” o Refused to compete in Olympic games (unike his dad Phillip II) - Alexander tried to be like Achilles o Didn’t participate in games o Carried iliad around with him o Had a private games for Achilles  Plutarch Life of Alexander, 15.4: Then, going up to Ilium (Troy), he sacrificed to Athena and poured libations to the heroes. Furthermore, the gravestone of Achilles he anointed with oil, ran a race by it with his companions, naked, as is the custom, and then crowned it with garlands, pronouncing the hero happy in having, while he lived, a faithful friend, and after death, a great herald of his fame (i.e.Homer). - Medism = when a greek adopts Persian customs o 325 BCE: Alexander arranged a “show” competition – Koragos a Macedonian Warrior (dressed as Ares) vs. Dioxippos an Olympic Victor in Wrestling (dressed as Heracles) in 336 BCE. o Dioxippos defeats Koragos o Alexander upset at loss. Later Dioxippos is framed for theft.  Ashamed, Dioxippos commits suicide. - Alexander’s specatle competition similar to earlier Persian examples, i.e. Poulydamas of Skotousa fighting Persian immortals in show competition for King of Persia - In Egypt alexander was declared pharaoh, Son of Ra and Incarnation of Horus. - Oracle apparently addressed him as son of zeus (Plutarch says it could be an error) - At the Olympic Festival of 324 BCE, Alexander Proclaimed that the Greeks should worship him as a god. o Nobody objected to him wanting to be a god - Hellenization – Adoption of Greek language, writing, and customs in conquered territories Athletics in the Hellenistic Era, after the death of Alexander - “Iso-Games” = Games equivalent to Sacred Crown Games performed throughout Hellenistic Empires - “Gymnasium Class” – Establishing elite Greek social identity through “gym membership” o Not just physical training(elite social centers and schools) - Ephebic Training: Training youths as a means of Greek socialization within the Empires of Egypt, Persia, etc. o Ephebe = male youth o Those not part of the “gymnasium class” were “apalaistroi” = men without a palaestra Ptolemy in Egypt: - Ptolemy I of Egypt and Queen Berenice I both had chariot victories at Olympia. o Much like kyniska - Ptolemy II o established Museum and Library at Alexandria o Gymnasium of Ptolemy in Athnes, and palaestra and gymnasium at Olympia. o Him and sister won victoires in chariot racing o Grand Procession through Stadium at Alexandria, which included exotic animals and statue of Alexander the Great being pulled in a chariot by Elephants  foundation for later spectacle processions and performances in Rome - Hellanistic Olympi o Building program expanded (because of kings)  Ex Leonidaion = hotel for athlete o Olympia expanded criteria for participation (only had to speak greek)  Increased foreign participants Lecture 24: Early Rome and Sport Spectacle - Entruscan civilization entered roman republic in 4 century BCE - Minist and trade led to entruscan expansion in Italian peninsulas - By 1 century BCE rome has annexed all remaining entruscan territory - Entrscan Vase: Found in 1844 in an Etruscan tomb (near Italy) o Dated to 570/560 BCE o Depicts Funeral Games of Patroclus - Entruscans DID NOT participate in Panhellinic games - No literary account for entruscan sport participation o Only tomb paintings (material evidence) - Perizoma Group – the belt worn by boxers o Greek athletes with loin clothes on Early roman history - Rome kings o Romulus o Numa Pompilius o Tullus Hostilius o Ancus Marcius o Tarquinius Priscus (Lucumo) o Servius Tullius o Tarquinius Superbus - Monarchy from 753 – 509 BCE - Oligarchy from 509 – 31 BCE o Know as time of republic = Res publica o Romans called government “ the senate and roman people” - Roman Government o 2 Consuls- chief magistrates of Rome; (elected yearly) o Praetor- (increase from 2-> 8 commander of army or elected magistrate, ruled provences o Aedile- (2 pairs): office of maintenance of public works  Including buildings and festivals o Questor- Financial officers o Patricians- Old Ruling Class Families in Rome o Equestrians- Aristocracy, lower than Patricians o Tribune of the Plebs- The tribunes were sacrosanct—had veto power over the senate and were sacrosanct; No harm could be done to the tribune.  Tribune had protection of the Plebs- the people. - Early Roman Sport directly linked to Religious Worship: Festivals or Holidays – Feriae - Roman Games = Ludi (latin = to play) o Chariot races or theatrical performances as acts o thanks for military success or deliverance from crisis Chariot Racing At Circus Maximus: - Circus maximus: o Located on level ground of valley between Rome’s Aventine and palentine hills o Maximus (meaning very large) refers to proximity to ARA MAXIMA and NOT to the size of circus maximus - Design of Circuses: o Carceres: starting gates o Spina: median, dividing spine o Meta: turning posts at end of spina o Sparsor: a faction member who guides chariots and thows water on them to cool them o Hortator: faction member on horseback who scouts the way ahead o Dolphins: lap counters (full laps from start) o Eggs: lap counters (laps at 1 turn) o 7 laps: in art, 7 dolphins and 7 eggs are standard but some written sources say 9  To prevent collisions at the start, lanes were drawn in chalk which riders had to obey by until the break line or white line - Chariot racing only became a sport after 201BCE o Consisted of 4,6,8, or 12 horses o Divided into four groups by colour: red, white, green, and blue - Cariot teams were called factions o Privately owned businesses by private executives (domini factionum). o Factions owned all horses, chariots and equipment needed for stables Greek vs Roman chariot racing - Greeks held reigns while romans wrapped them around waist o A lot of roman deaths as a result o Carried a cruved knife (a falx) to cut themselves loose in case and wore helmets/protective gear o The charioteers themselves, the aurigae, were considered to be the winners, although they were usually also slaves (as in the Greek world). Lecture 25: Early Rome Gladiators (Triumphs + Gladiators/Beast Hunts) - Triumphator – the general celebrating the victory - Triumph = large celebrating of victory usually through a parade o Usually celebrates general and troops o Show off the subrogation of the enemy  Show off the loot and animals and people of the places that have been conquered Characteristics of a triumph - Legitimate war - Complete victory - Large war o Must have at least a 5000 body count Triumph involves: a sacrifice to Jupiter at the end - Illegal for anyone to be in the city of Rome under arms (triumph was the exception) Northern Interior of Arch of Titus - Emperor titus is dressed as jupitar with goddess nike behind chariot - Lictors: fasces are symbols of power of the magistrate/senate - Slaves by chariot Southern interior of Arch of titus - -Spoils from the Sack of Jerusalem in 79 CE - Has triumphal arch - Menorah - Plaque - Trumpets The Beast Hunts - Venatio = beast hunt - Damnatio ad bestias = when the romans would execute criminals by making them fight wild beasts (example = Christians being fed to the lions) - Romans are credited with extinction of many animals in different places Amphitheater - Originally hunted for need not pleasure - As romans expanded they became exposed to different animals o Animals were represented as trophies of the places the people had been o When the animals were killed it represented the conquering of that specific land all over again - Royal hunts were for pleasure - Amphitheater = theater that goes all the way around - Nobility are competing amongst themselves to put on more and more elaborate animal shows - People are expecting more and more as well Gladiators: - Gladiators- 308 BCE: o Were prizoners of war o Were fighters in funeral games o May have come from truscan customs o Cantanians fought against the samnites and took them as prisoners were they were first used as gladiators - Gladiators are slaves that have been trained and armored to fight o Have same military ideals that the romans have been taught to have o Die with honour (will sacrifice their lives) o Have slave status tho - Hannibal took elephants from spain and fought the romans - Samnite War; 216 BCE: Battle of Cannae (Virtues). Gladiator School - Free people and emperors could become gladiators - Trained in the ludus - Anyone could sponsor the slaves (gladiators) – just needed money - Gladiators didn’t actually fight to the death o Always the chance of death but people didn’t want to lose their investments\ o Trained them to put on a show - Sometimes gladiators were paid - Thumbs down meant live thumbs up or side meant kill (a lot of confusion tho no one really knows) - People followed gladiators who won o ILS 5113 = CIL 10.7297 “Flamma, secutor, lived 30 years, fought 34 times, conquered 21, received missio standing 9 times, received missio 4 times, Syrian by birth. Delicatus erected this for a deserving fellow-fighter.” Chapter 26: Roman Spectacle; Late Republic - Populares: Aristocratic Leaders who relied on the people’s assemblies and tribunate to gain power. o Voice of the people - Optimates: Aristocratic Majority of the Late Roman Republic, who wanted to limit power of people’s assembly and concentrate power with the Senate. o Elite Upper class Sulla vs Marius - Marius was elected consul of the populares party (107 BCE) - Sulla was elected consul of the optimates party (88 BCE) o Marius had sullas powers revoked o Sulla marches on Rome and declares marius an enemy of the state (marius had already retook rome)  Sulla wins and retakes city, makes reforms and dies in 78 BCE Sulla’s Spectacles - 93 BCE: Sulla sponsors a 100 maned lion fight - 82 BCE: Sulla had 6,000 smanites (neighbors to rome) from the civilwar executed in the circus Flaminus - 82 BCE: Ludi Victoriae Sullae-The Games for the Victory of Sulla o Victory Procession (later annual festival) o Displayed spoils of war with Mithridates o At the end of procession, he gave a speech and declared himself “Fortunate” (Latin: Felix) o Held Banquets with such an excess that left over meat was thrown into the river - 80 BCE: Sulla’s Olympics held in Rome (except for stadion, which still took place in Olympia) Spartacus - Most famous gladiator - Slave rebellion began in 73 BCE o Had over 70,000 men and defeated 3 roman Commanders o Eventually defeated army of consul and 10,000- soldiers o Crassus (former lieutenant of sulla) was in charge of 40,000 people to defeat spartacus o Spartacus was defeated in 71 BCE Senerchia  6000 survivors of spartacus’s army were crucified and lined the apian way from Capua to Rome - Marx saw spartacus as the best representative of the proletariat – the working class - Became a voice for freedom throughout history o Fueled the French revolution - Spartacus wanted to get rid of classes o 1960 rome Olympics: major changes for participation in terms of gender and race Pompey - Gained popularity through spectacle ( wanted to be pulled in by elephants to show how far he’s gone) - 76-71 BCE: General, made proconsul to end rebellions in Spain - 71 BCE: Pompey returns to Rome, helps to finish the war against Spartacus and take credit for the victory (over Crassus) - 70 BCE: Pompey served as consul together with Crassus (without any prior political roles in the government of Rome) - 61 BCE (Victory against Mithridates), Pompey celebrated the most lavish Triumphal Procession in Roman history. o Procession lasted 2 days with wagons of gold, 300 enemy leaders o Pompey rode in wearing cloack of alexander the great - 55 BCE: pompey dedicated the first stone theater in the campus martius o Included plays, music and athletic performances - Pompey put onhunts in circus maximus which included elephants, lions and 400 other beasts o Beast show backfires as people felt bad for elephants First Triumvirate - 62 BCE, Pompey returned from Asia, and had 2 requests: o 1. ratify settlements with the East (after his victories) o 2. a bill to give his veterans land  The Senate denied both requests - A private agreement bewtween Julius ceasar, Pompey and Crassus o Caesar would be elected consul in 59 BCE, and then governor of Gaul for five years. o Caesar would ratify Pompey’s requests o Crassus would become consul in the future. - Triumvirate disbanded for various reasons: o Crassus died o Julia (daughter of Ceasar and wife of pompey) died in childbirth Ceasar - Ceasar goes away and anarchy occurs in rome - Pompey is made dictator/sole consul to restore order for the year - Ceasar said he would resign if pompey did as well o Ceasars terms are denied - 49 BCE: Ceasar crosees the rubicon (point of no return) and takes army to rome - Pompey and the Senators (w/o a proper army) fled, and Caesar entered Rome unchallenged - 48 BCE- Caesar appointed dictator for 10 years and held the Tribunate - 46 BCE Caesar had censorial powers and could fill the senate with his own people. o Raised number of Senators to 900, robbing the aristocracy of its power - 44 BCE – Caesar was appointed dictator for life. - March 15, 44 BCE – Caesar was assassinated by members of the Roman Senate. - Ceasars Spectacles o Munera were no longer as funerary rite  Munera were public works for the people by higher powers o 65 BCE: Ceasar held funeral games for his father who died 20 years earlier o Ceasar wanted to keep gladiators as more gladiators = more power  Wanted gladiators to be more popular with the people o 46 BCE: 4 triumphs in 1 month th  A 5 a little bit later o 46 BCE: First known Stadium in Rome in the Campus Martius, for athletic even
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