Classics 3rd Midterm Passages sheet

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Classical Studies
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Classical Studies 2300
Charles Stocking

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rd Classics 3 Midterm Passages sheet Plutrch Life of Alexander, 4.5 For it was neither every kind of fame nor fame from every source that he courted, as Philip did, who plumed himself like a sophist on the power of his oratory, and took care to have the victories of his chariots at Olympia engraved upon his coins; nay, when those about him inquired whether he would be willing to contend in the foot-race at the Olympic games, since he was swift of foot, ‘Yes,’ said he, ‘if I could have kings as my competitors.’ - Alexander wouldn’t compete unless he played against kings (doesn’t want to lose to a peasant and doesn’t want to beat one) Plutarch Life of Alexander, 15.4: Then, going up to Ilium (Troy), he sacrificed to Athena and poured libations to the heroes. Furthermore, the gravestone of Achilles he anointed with oil, ran a race by it with his companions, naked, as is the custom, and then crowned it with garlands, pronouncing the hero happy in having, while he lived, a faithful friend, and after death, a great herald of his fame (i.e.Homer). - Private funeral games for Achilles Alexander would engage in Lion Hunts during campaigns as a demonstration of his bravery. Krateros dedication at Delphi presented Bronze images of Alexander’s Lion hunt with Krateros (cf. Plutarch Life of Alexander 23.2-3) Origins of Ludi Circensis (marks beginning of great Ludi): Livy, The History of Rome 1.35.7-9: First Tarquinius waged war on the Latins and captured the town of Apiolae. Because he brought back more plunder than expected from what seemed like a small war, he put on more extravagant ludi than previous kings had done. It was then that the place now called the Circus Maximus was marked out. There were separate sections of seats for senators and knights to watch from, with benches on supports as much as 12 feet from the ground. There were horse races and boxers brought in from Etruria. These games are still held annually, and called the Ludi Romani or the Great Ludi. (Mahoney, p.1) Cicero In Verrem 2.5.77 “But even those who have triumphs, and who on that account keep the generals of the enemy alive a longer time, in order that, while they are led in triumph, the Roman people may enjoy an ennobling spectacle, and a splendid fruit of victory; nevertheless, when they begin to turn their chariot from the forum towards the Capitol, order them to be taken back to prison, and the same day brings to the conquerors the end of their authority, and to the conquered the end of their lives.” Dear Caelius, About the panthers! The matter is being handled with diligence and according to my orders by men who are skillful hunters.” – Cicero (Correspondance to family and friends 2.11.2) Livy 22.57.9-12 “They ordered that armor and weapons should be made ready, and took down from the temples and proticoes the ancient spoils of enemies. The levy wore a strange appearance, for, owing to the scarcity of free men and the need of the hour, they bought, with money from the treasury, 8,000 young and stalwart slaves and armed them, first asking each if he were willing to serve. They preferred these slaves for soldiers, though they might have redeemed the prisoners of war at less expense” ILS 5113 = CIL 10.729 “Flamma, secutor, lived 30 years, fought 34 times, conquered 21, received missio standing 9 times, received missio 4 times, Syrian by birth. Delicatus erected this for a deserving fellow- fighter - Gladiatorial followings Plutarch, Life of Crassus, 8.1ff: The insurrection of the gladiators and their devastation of Italy, which is generally called the war of Spartacus, had its origin as follows. A certain Lentulus Batiatus had a school of gladiators at Capua, most of whom were Gauls and Thracians. Through no misconduct of theirs, but owing to the injustice of their owner, they were kept in close confinement and reserved for gladiatorial combats. Two hundred of these planned to make their escape, and when information was laid against them, those who got wind of it and succeeded in getting away, seventy-eight in number, seized cleavers and spits from some kitchen and sallied out. On the road they fell in with waggons conveying gladiators' weapons to another city; these they plundered and armed themselves. Then they took up a strong position and elected three leaders. The first of these was Spartacus, a Thracian of Nomadic stock, possessed not only of great courage and strength, but also in sagacity and culture superior to his fortune, and more Hellenic than Thracian. - Spartacus- Gladiator Rebellion of 73 BCE: Karl Marx on Spartacus: “Spartacus emerges as the most capital fellow in the whole history of antiquity. A great general [...], of noble character, a ‘real representative’ of the proletariat of ancient times. Pompey a real shit [...]” 1951 CE, Howard Fast writes the novel Spartacus and makes Spartacus a communist Revolutionary aiming for a classless society: “The whole world belongs to Rome so Rome must be destroyed and made only a bad memory, and then where Rome was, we will build a new life where all men will live in peace and brotherhood and love, no slaves and no slave masters, no gladiators and no arenas, but a time like the old times, like the golden age. We will build new cities of brotherhood, and there will be no walls around them.” Howard Fast, Spartacus p.170 “The last day was that of the elephants, and on that day the mob and crowd was greatly impressed, but manifested no pleasure. Indeed, the result was a certain compassion (misericordia) and a kind of feeling that the huge beast has a fellowship with the human race.” - Cicero, letter to Marcus Marius "But Pompey's elephants, when they had lost all hope of escape, tried to gain the compassion of the crowd by indescribable gestures of entreaty, deploring their fate with a sort of wailing, so much to the distress of the public that they forgot the general and his munificence carefully devised for their honor, and bursting into tears rose in a body and invoked curses on the head of Pompey for which he soon afterwards paid the penalty.” - Pliny, Natural Histories Praise of Cleopatra Horace Odes 1.37 Seeking to die honorably, She had no coward’s fear of the sword, Nor did her swift fleet make for hidden shores. Her face serene, she dared to behold her hlepless palace, brave enough to clutch deadly snakes So she should take the black poison into her body. All the more fierce– she planned her own death— She deprived Caesar’s swift Liburnian ships of her being led in his proud triumph like a meek woman. Suetonius, Divine Augustus 43 “In the number, variety, and magnificence of his public spectacles, he surpassed all former example. Four and-twenty times, he says, he treated the people with games upon his own account, and three-and-twenty times for such magistrates as were either absent, or not able to afford the expense.” - Augustus establishes Popularity and Power through Spectacles Suetonius, Divine Augustus, 43 Noble Spectacle? “He entertained the people with wrestlers in the Campus Martius, where wooden seats were erected for the purpose; and also with a naval fight, for which he excavated the ground near the Tiber, where there is now the grove of the Caesars. During these two entertainments he stationed guards in the city lest, by robbers taking advantage of the small number of people left at home, it might be exposed to depredations. In the circus he exhibited chariot and foot races, and combats with wild beasts, in which the performers were often youths of the highest rank.” Spectacle and Social Reform/Stratification Suetonius, Divine Augustus “Augustus corrected the confusion and disorder with which the spectators took their seats at the public games, after an affront which was offered to a senator at Puteoli, for whom, in a crowded theatre, no one would make room. He therefore procured a decree of the senate, that in all public spectacles of any sort, and in any place whatever, the first tier of benches should be left empty for the accommodation of senators. He would not even permit the ambassadors of free nations, nor of those which were allies of Rome, to sit in the orchestra; having found that some freed slaves had been sent under that character.” “He separated the soldiery from the rest of the people, and assigned to married plebeians their particular rows of seats. To the boys he assigned their own benches, and to their tutors the seats which were nearest it; ….. none clothed in black should sit in the centre of the circle. Nor would he allow any women to witness the combats of the gladiators, except from the upper part of the theatre, although they formerly used to take their places promiscuously with the rest of the spectators.” Virgil’s Aeneid Bk.5: The Trojan Funeral Games on anniversary of death of Anchises Aeneas: “So come, all of us celebrate our happy rites! …I shall hold games for all our Trojans. First a race for our swift ships, then for our fastest man afoot, And then our best and boldest can step up to win the javelin-throw or wing the wind swift arrow or dare to fight with bloody rawhide gloves (boxing). Come all! See who takes the victory prize, the palm.” - Aeneas distributes prizes, like Achilles - Groups of young boys on horse back— (mock fight) “watch the long column, split into three equal squads, Splits into rows of six, in bands dancing away, Then recalled at the next command they whelled and charged each other, lances tense for attack, Wheeling charge into countercharge, return and turn Through the whole arena, enemies circling, swerving back in their armor, acting out a mock display of war.” “This tradition of drill and these mock battles: Ascanius was the first to revive the Rite When he girded Alba Longa round with ramparts, Teaching the early Latins to keep these rites, Just as he and his fellow Trojan boys had done, And the Albans taught their sons, and in her turn Great Rome received the rites and preserved our fathers’ fame. The boys are now called Trojans, their troupe the Trojan Corps.” - Represented as a historical practice when it wasn’t The “Five Good Emperors”: Machiavelli: “From the study of this history we may also learn how a good government is to be established; for while all the emperors who succeeded to the throne by birth, except Tituswere bad, all were good who succeeded by adoption, as in the case of the five from Nerva to Marcus. But as soon as the empire fell once more to the heirs by birth, its ruin recommenced.” Bread and Games “Now that no one buys our votes, the public has long since cast off its cares; the people that once bestowed commands, consulships, legions and all else, now meddles no more and longs eagerly for just two things----Bread and Games!” Juvenal “Now that no one buys our votes, the public has long since cast off its cares; the people that once bestowed commands, consulships, legions and all else, now meddles no more and longs eagerly for just two things----Bread and Games!” Marcus Cornelius Fronto 100-170 CE “Emperors were to be credible fathers of the country, stron military leaders, rulers of the world, and worthy candidates for deification and veneration in the emperor cult.” - Kyle, Sport and Spectacle p.303 Suetonius Caligula, 26-27 (Mahoney p49 At a gladiatorial munus, when the sun was blazing and the awnings had been put out, he would sometimes insist that they be taken off, and forbid anyone to leave. He would exhibit the cheapest, second-rate beasts and gladiators grown old and sick. He would make men with physical disabilities fight, even if they were respectable, free citizens. And sometimes he would close the granaries and announce that the people would starve. - Caligula’s cruelty (above) and more cruelty and weirdness (below) - Suetonius, Caligula 55: He was so extravagantly fond of the party of charioteers whose colours were green, that he ate and lodged for some time constantly in the stable where their horses were kept. At a certain revel, he made a present of two million sesterces to one Cythicus, a driver of a chariot. The day before the Circensian games, he used to send his soldiers to enjoin silence in the neighbourhood, that the repose of his horse Incitatus, might not be disturbed. For this favourite animal, in addition to giving a marble stable, an ivory manger, purple housings, and a jewelled frontlet, he appointed a house, with a retinue of slaves, and fine furniture, for the reception of those who were invited in the horse's name to eat with him. It is even said that he intended to make his horse consul. Suetonius, Nero, 24 “That no memory or the least monument might remain of any other victor in the sacred Grecian games, he ordered all their statues and pictures to be pulled down, dragged away with hooks, and thrown into the common sewers. He drove the chariot with various numbers of horses, and at the Olympic games with no fewer than ten; though, in a poem of his, he had reflected upon Mithridates for that innovation. Being thrown out of his chariot, he was again replaced, but could not retain his seat, and was obliged to give it up, before he reached the goal, but was crowned notwithstanding.” - Threw statues of vicotrs into sewers as he wanted to be the only one remembered Suetonius, Nero, 53 “But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob. It was the general belief that after his victories on the stage he would at the next lustrum [i.e., Olympic Games] have competed with the athletes at Olympia; for he practiced wrestling constantly, and all over Greece he had always viewed the gymnastic contests after the fashion of the judges, sitting on the ground in the stadium; and if any pair of contestants withdrew too far from their positions, he would force them forward with his own hand. since he was acclaimed the equal of Apollo in music and of the sun in driving a chariot, he had planned to emulate the exploits of Hercules as well; and they say that a lion had been specially trained for him to kill naked in the arena of the amphitheatre for all the people, with a club or by the clasp of his arms.” - Trained a lion not to fight back so he could kill it and stood in as a judge whenever he wanted to Apollonaris Sidonius (Late source, 460CE-465 CE) [Mahoney p.35 “Now the enemy, pursuing you recklessly…comes boldly across the course to ram your wheel. His horses crumple. The shameless mob of their legs goes in the wheels and breaks the spokes one after another, until the center of the wheel is full of cracking sounds and the rim stops the flyting feet. He himself falls from the collapsing chariot, making a massive mountain of ruin, and staining his fallen face with blood.” Martial Epigrams 10.5 “Let Victory in sadness break her Idumaean palms; O Favour, strike your bare breast with unsparing hand. Let Honour change her garb for that of mourning; and make your crowned locks, O disconsolate Glory, an offering to the cruel flames. Oh! sad misfortune! that you, Scorpus, should be cut off in the flower of your youth, and be called so prematurely to harness the dusky steeds of Pluto. The chariot- race was always shortened by your rapid driving; but O why should your own race have been so speedily run?” Martial, Epigram 10.53: O Rome, I am Scorpus, the glory of your noisy circus, the object of your applause, your short-lived favourite. The envious Lachesis, when she cut me off in my twenty-seventh year, accounted me, in judging by the number of my victories, to be an old man.” Monument to Diocles- stats: “Grand totals: He drove chariots for 24 years, ran 4,257 starts and won 1,462 victories, 110 in opening races. In single entry races he won 1,064 victories, winning 92 major purses, 32 of them (including 3 with six-horse teams) at 30,000 serstertii, 28 (including 2 with six-horse teams) at 40,000 sestertii, 29 (including 1 with a seven horse team) at 50,000 sestertii and 3 at 60,000 sestertii. [...] He won a total of 35,863,120 sestertii.” Pliny the Younger (61CE-112 CE), Letter 9.6: The Circensian Games were taking place; a kind
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