Lecture 24 Early Rome.docx

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
Charles Stocking

Lecture 24 – Early Rome and Spectacle Sport Roman Pre-History: The Etruscans - Etruscan Civilization existed from 700 BCE – incorporated into the Roman Republic in 300s BCE - Transition from Chiefdrom/Tribal societies to state formation - Rome was the first Italian state – inherited from the Etruscans - Mining and trade in metals led to Etruscan expansion on the Italian Peninsula and surrounding areas - 540 BCE Battle of Alalia between Greeks, Etruscans and Carthignians, near the island of Corsica o Led to new distribution of power in the West Mediterranean:  Carthage expanded its influence  Etruscans relegated to Northern Italy - 474 BCE Hiero (from Syracuse) defeats the Etruscans in the Battle of Cumae - Power struggles led to the Etruscans loss of influence over the area of Latium – taken over by Romans st - By 1 century BCE, Rome has annexed all remaining Etruscan territory Etruscan Sport and Spectacle: Greek Gifts and Roman Roots - Influence of Greek Sports on Etruscans  Francois Vase: o Found in 1844 in an Etruscan tomb in a cemetery in Italy o Dated to 570/560 BCE o Depicts the Funeral Games of Patroclus - Etruscans did not participate in Panhellenic Games  possibly had their own athletic culture that was influenced by the Greeks - There is no Etruscan literary account of sport or funeral games, but there is evidence from material culture - Best evidence for Etruscan sport – tomb paintings - Tomb of the Augurs 520 BCE o Painted tomb located in Tarquinia o Called the Tomb of the Augurs b/c men are thought to be interpreting bird signs, as a form of divination o Also seems to depict funeral games o Naked athletes depicted  Greek influence  All other performers from other cultures were clothed - Tomb of the Monkey in Chiusi Non-Nude Athletics: Greek Vases for Etruscans - Perizoma Group: o Greek vases with naked athletes with Perizomas (loincloth) painted in them afterward o Most likely made for export for Etruscan clients - Inconsistency in representation  some athletes nude (tomb paintings), while other clothes (Perizoma group) Early History of Rome - Monarchy from 753 BCE o Early history is debatable – legends do not seem to record accurately that Rome became a city of outsiders and outcasts and that Roman citizen ship was from early times a legal, rather than ethnic status - Roman Kings – according to Roman Tradition: o Romulus o Numa Pompilius o Tullus Hostilis o Ancus Marcius o Tarquinius Priscus (Lucumo) o Servius Tullius o Tarquinius Superbus - Oligarchy from 509-31 BCE o Known as the time of the Repulic = Res Publica o Romans called their government the Senate and the Roman People – SQPR = Senatus Populusque Romanus Early Rome: The Republic - 2 Consuls – chief magistrates of Rome o Presided over the senate o Elected yearly - Praetor (increased from 2  8) o Commander of army or elected magistrate o Ruled provinces - Aedile – 2 pairs o Office of maintenance of public works, including buildings and festivals - Questor o Financia
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