Lecture 26 Late Republic.docx

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Department
Classical Studies
Course
Classical Studies 2300
Professor
Charles Stocking
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 26 Late Republic Conflicts in Government: Populares vs. Optimates Populares: aristocratic leaders who relied on people’s assemblies and tribunate to gain power Optimates: aristocratic majority of the Late Roman Republic, who wanted to limit power of people’s assembly and concentrate power with the Senate Marius vs. Sulla - 107 BCE – Marius elected consul (of Populares party) o Conquered Numidia and defeated Germanic Tribes - 88 BCE – Sulla elected consul (of Optimates party) o Went to war with Mithridates - Marius had Sulla’s powers revoked and had Sulla return to Rome - In response, Sulla marches on Rome o Declares Marius an enemy of the state o When Sulla was away fighting, Marius returned to Rome and took over - 83 BCE – Sulla returned to Rome, retook the city, made reforms, held temporary dictatorship, but later resigned the dictatorship Sulla’s Spectacles - 93 BCE – Sponsored a beast fight with 100 maned lions o Provide entertainment o Demonstration of his power and connections to the non-Roman world through the use of exotic animals - 82 BCE – 6000 Samnites from the civil war executes in the Circus Flaminus Ludi Victoriae Sullae – Games for the Victory of Sulla - 82 BCE Victory Procession o Later an annual festival o Procession included Roman citizens, who were exiles when Marius had control over Rome o Exiles declared Sulla “savior” and “father” o At the end of the procession, he gave a speech and declared himself “Fortunate” (Latin: Felix) o Banquets were so excessive that leftover meat was thrown into the river - 80 BCE Victory Games o Sulla’s Olympics held in Rome (except for Stadion, which took place at Olympia) Spartacus: Gladiator Rebellion of 73 BCE Plutarch, Life of Crassus, 8.1ff: The insurrection of the gladiators and their devastation of Italy, which is generally called the war of Spartacus, had its origin as follows. A certain Lentulus Batiatus had a school of gladiators at Capua, most of whom were Gauls and Thracians. Through no misconduct of theirs, but owing to the injustice of their owner, they were kept in close confinement and reserved for gladiatorial combats. Two hundred of these planned to make their escape, and when information was laid against them, those who got wind of it and succeeded in getting away, seventy-eight in number, seized cleavers and spits from some kitchen and sallied out. On the road they fell in with waggons conveying gladiators' weapons to another city; these they plundered and armed themselves. Then they took up a strong position and elected three leaders. The first of these was Spartacus, a Thracian of Nomadic stock, possessed not only of great courage and strength, but also in sagacity and culture superior to his fortune, and more Hellenic than - Most famous gladiator - Leader of slave rebellion in 73 BCE - Slave Army of Spartacus increase to 70,000 men – divided into 3 different groups - Spartacus’s goal was FREEDOM - The army won battles over 3 different Roman commanders and the army of the consul + 10,000 Roman Soldiers - Crassus (former Lt. of Sulla) was put in charge of 40,000 Roman soldiers to defeat Spartacus - Spartacus attempted to get reinforcements from Sicily but was betrayed and the army was cornered in Southern Italy - Spartacus and his army was defeated in 71 bce - 6000 survivors of Spartacus’ army were crucified and lined along the Appian Way from Capua to Rome Spartacus: A Model of Freedom throughout History Karl Marx on Spartacus: “Spartacus emerges as the most capital fellow in the whole history of antiquity. A great general [...], of noble character, a ‘real representative’ of the proletariat of ancient times. Pompey a real shit [...]” 1951 CE, Howard Fast writes the novel Spartacus and makes Spartacus a communist Revolutionary aiming for a classless society: “The whole world belongs to Rome so Rome must be destroyed and made only a bad memory, and then where Rome was, we will build a new life where all men will live in peace and brotherhood and love, no slaves and no slave masters, no gladiators and no areas, but a time like the old times, like the golden age. We will build new cities of brotherhood, and there will be no walls around them.” Howard Fast, Spartacus p.170 - Marx saw Spartacus as the best representative of the proletariat – the working class - He became a voice for freedom throughout history  fueled the French Revolution - Spartacus wanted to get rid of classes o 1960 Rome Olympics – major changes for participation in terms of gender and race Pompey - Pompey was feared because of his popularity and military power - 76-71 BCE General, made proconsul to end rebellions in Spain - 71 BCE Pompey returns to Rome, helps to finish the war against Spartacus and takes credit for victory (over Crassus) - 70 BCE Pompey served as consul together with Crassus - 61 BCE (Victory against Mithridates) – Pompey celebrated the most lavish
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