Final Exam Passages sheet

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
Charles Stocking

Final Exam Passages Sheet • Philostratus, The Lives of the Sophists, 1.7 – Trajan’s love for Dio “The Emperor Trajan in Rome set him by his side on the golden chariot in which the Emperors ride in procession when they celebrate their triumphs in war, and often he would turn to Dio and say: "I do not understand what you are saying, but I love you as I love myself.” • Dio Chrysostom’s role as philosopher and part of second sophistic: “For though he very often rebuked licentious cities, he did not show himself acrimonious or ungracious, but like one who restrains an unruly horse with the bridle rather than the whip; and when he set out to praise cities that were well governed, he did not seem to extol them, but rather to guide their attention to the fact that they would be ruined if they should change their ways. In other connections also the temper of his philosophy was never vulgar or ironical; and though his attacks were made with a heavy hand, they were tempered and as it were seasoned with benevolence.” • Beginning of Oration, Watching Athletes train for Sebastan Games: At first we tried to see by looking over other people's shoulders, and with difficulty managed to catch a glimpse of the 2 head of a man who was exercising with his hands up. Then we gradually got in closer. He was a very tall and beautiful young man; and besides, the exercises he was taking made his body seem, quite naturally, still taller and more beautiful. He was giving a most brilliant performance, and in so spirited a way that he seemed more like a man in an actual contest. 3 Then, when he stopped exercising and the crowd began to draw away, we studied him more closely. He was just like one of the most carefully wrought statues, and also he had a colour like well blended bronze.” (Isn’t talking about melancomas but theatriclas) • The Beauty of Melancomas - Dio: And although beauty is wont to lead to softness, even with those who are only moderately endowed with it, beautiful as he was, he was even more remarkable for his self-control and moderation; and though despising his beauty, he none the less preserved it in spite of his rough profession.” – “For while the other blessings that a man may have might easily pass unnoticed, such as courage and temperance and wisdom, unless some deed should happen to reveal them, yet beauty cannot remain hidden. For it becomes manifest the moment its possessor appears; nay, one might say that it becomes manifest even sooner, so penetrating is the impression it makes on the senses. Furthermore, most men envy all other blessings and become hostile to their possessor, but beauty makes friends of those who perceive it and allows no one to become an enemy.” • Dio on athletics superior to war: “And, speaking generally, I give athletics the preference over distinction in warfare on the following scores: first, that the best men in athletics would distinguish themselves in war also; for the man who is stronger in body and is able to endure hardship the longer time is, in my opinion, he who, whether unarmed or armed, is the better man.” “Second, it is not the same thing to contend against untrained opponents and men who are inferior in every way, as it is to have for one's antagonists the best men drawn from the whole inhabited earth. Besides, in war the man who once conquers slays his antagonist, so as not to have the same opponent the second time; whereas in athletics the victory is just for that one day, and afterwards the victor has for his opponents, not only the men he has beaten, but anyone else who cares to challenge.” ”Further, in athletics the better man proves superior to the inferior man, since he must conquer with nothing else but his courage and physical strength; while in war the might of steel, which is much superior to mere human flesh, does not allow the excellency of men's bodies to be tested and often takes the side of the inferior man” • Tacitus, on Nero’s influence: “Corruption was to be seen at Rome, and a degeneracy bred by foreign tastes was infecting the youth who devoted themselves to athletic sports, to idle loungings and low intrigues…. What remained for them but to strip themselves naked, put on the boxing- glove, and practice such battles instead of the arms of legitimate warfare?” • “But the man who actually gained all the blessings found among mankind must be worthy to be accounted happy in his death also. For if the longest possible time were best for man, we might well have lamented over him in that regard; but as it is, seeing that all the life given to man is but short, you will find that with very many men it would have been much better if they had died sooner, so many are the misfortunes that overtake them.” Dio of Chrysostom, Oratio 29 • Iliad 9. Achilles: Kleos (fame) vs nostos (return home) “My mother Thetis the goddess of the silver feet tells me I carry two sorts of destiny toward the day of my death. If I stay here and fight beside the city of the Trojans, My return home (nostos) is gone, but my glory will be everlasting (aphthitos kleos); But if I return home (nostos) to the beloved land of my fathers, the excellence of my glory (kleos) is gone, but there will be a long life left for me, and my end in death will not come to me quickly.” • Herodotus, Histories Kelobis and Biton “Their mother was overjoyed at the feat and at the praise, so she stood before the imageof Hera and prayed that the goddess might grant the best thing for man to her children Kleobis and Biton, who had given great honor to the goddess. After this prayer they sacrificed and feasted. The youths then lay down in the temple and went to sleep and never rose again; death held them there. The Argives made and dedicated at Delphi statues of them as being the best of men.” • Dio - Melancomas as a Paradigm for Future Generations Come then, train zealously and toil hard, the younger men should do so in the belief that this man's place has been left to them, the older in a way that befits their own achievements; yes, and take all the pride in these things that men should who live for praise (epainon) and glory (doxa) and shape themselves for virtue (arete).” • Pausanias’ Method, (3.11.1): “For from the beginning the plan of my work has been to discard the many trivial stories current among the several communities, and to pick out the things most worthy of mention – an excellent rule which I will never violate.” • Mycenae and the Grave of Agamemnon. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.16.7: “Clytemnestra and Aegisthus were buried at some little distance from the wall. They were thought unworthy of a place within it, where lay Agamemnon himself and those who were murdered with him.” • Heinrich Schliemann discovers the shaft graves of Mycenae thanks to Pausanias: “My firm faith in the tradition made me undertake my excavations in the Acropolis [of Mycenae] and led to the discovery of the five tombs and their immense treasures.” Schliemann, Mycenae, p.355 Mythic History: Description of Greece, 5.7.6: “As for the Olympic games, the most learned antiquaries of Elis say that Cronus was the first king of heaven, and that in his honor a temple was built in Olympia by the men of that age, who were named the Golden Race. When Zeus was born, Rhea entrusted the guardianship of her son to the Dactyls of Ida, who are the same as those called Curetes.” • Hesoid ages of man: Age of Gold: “The race of men that the immortals who dwell on Olympus made first of all was of gold. They were in the time of Kronos, when he was king in heaven; and they lived like gods, with carefree heart, remote from toil and misery. Wretched old age did not affect them either, but with hands and feet ever unchanged they enjoyed themselves in feasting, beyond all ills, and they died as if overcome by sleep. All good things were theirs, and the grain- giving soil bore its fruits of its own accord in unstinted plenty, while they at their leisure harvested their fields in contentment amid abundance. Since the earth covered up that race, they have been divine spirits by great Zeus’ design, good spirits on the face of the earth, watchers over mortal men, bestowers of wealth: such is the kingly honour that they received.” • Hesoid ages of man: Age of Silver A second race after that, much inferior, the dwellers on Olympus made of silver. It resembled the golden one neither in body nor in disposition. For a hundred years a boy would stay in the care of his mother, playing childishly at home; but after reaching adolescence and the appointed span of youthful manhood, they lived but a little time, and in suffering, because of their witlessness. For the could not restrain themselves from crimes against each other, and they would not serve the immortals or sacrifice on the sacred altars of the blessed ones, as is laid down for men in their various homelands. They were put away by Zeus son of Kronos, angry because they did not offer honour to the blessed gods who occupy Olympus. Since the earth covered up this race in its turn, they have been called the mortal blessed below, second in rank, but sill they too have honour. • Hesoid, Ages of Man: Age of bronze Then, Zeus the father made yet a third race of men, of bronze, not like the silver in anything. Out of ash-trees he made them, a terrible and fierce race, occupied with the woeful works of Ares and with acts of violence, no eaters of corn, their stern hearts being of adamant; unshapen hulks, with great strength and indescribable arms growing from their shoulders above their stalwart bodies. They had bronze armour, bronze houses, and with bronze they laboured, as dark iron was not available. They were laid low by their own hands, and they went to chill Hades’ house of decay leaving no names: mighty though they were, dark death got them, and they left the bright sunlight. • Hesoid, Ages of Man: Age of Heroes “After the earth covered up this race too, Zeus son of Kronos made yet a fourth one upon the rich-pastured earth, a more righteous and noble one, the godly race of the heroes who are called demigods, our predecessors on the boundless earth. And as for them, ugly war and fearful fighting destroyed them, some below seven-gated Thebes, the Cadmean country, as they battled for Oedipus’ flocks, and other it led in ships over the great abyss of the sea to Troy on account of lovely-haired Helen. There some of them were engulfed by the consummation of death, but to some Zeus the father, son of Kronos, granted a life and home apart from men, and settled them at the ends of the earth. These dwell with carefree heart in the Isles of the Blessed Ones, beside deep-swirling Oceanus: fortunate Heroes, for whom the grain- giving soil bears its honey-sweet fruits thrice a year.” • Hesoid, Ages of Man: Age of Iron Would that I were not then among the fifth men, but either dead earlier or born later! For now it is a race of iron; and they will never cease from toil and misery by day or night, in constant distress, and the gods will give them harsh troubles. Nevertheless, even they shall have good mixed with ill. Yet Zeus will destroy this race of men also, when at birth they turn out grey at the temples. Nor will father be like children nor children to father, nor guest to host or comrade to comrade, nor will a brother be friendly as in former times. Soon they will cease to respect their ageing parents, and will rail at them with harsh words, the ruffians, in ignorance of the gods’ punishment; nor are they likely to repay their ageing parents for their nurture. Fist-law men; one will sack another’s town, and there will be no thanks for the man who abides by his oath or for the righteous or worthy man, but instead they will honour the miscreant and the criminal. • First Mythic Olympic Games among the Olympian GodsPausanias, Description of Greece, 5.7.10: “Now some say that Zeus wrestled here with Cronus himself for the throne, while others say that he held the games in honor of his victory over Cronus. The record of victors include Apollo, who outran Hermes and beat Ares at boxing. It is for this reason, they say, that the Pythian flute-song is played while the competitors in the pentathlum are jumping; for the flute- song is sacred to Apollo, and Apollo won Olympic victories.” - Flood and creation of the greeks: Apollodorus (Roman Mythographer), E2: “Prometheus had a son, Deucalion..who married Pyrrha, the daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora, whom the gods made as the first women. When Zeus wished to wipe out the bronze race, Deucalion built an ark at Prometheus’ direction…Zeus poured a great rain from heaven and flooded most of Greece so that all the people were destroyed… When the rains stopped, Deucalion disembarked and sacrificed to Zeus. Zeus sent Hermes to im and bade him choose whatever he wanted. Deucalion chose to have people.” - Pausanias Mythic history of Olympia – pelops [5.8.2] And about a generation later than Endymion, Pelops held the games in honor of Olympian Zeus in a more splendid manner than any of his predecessors. When the sons of Pelops were scattered from Elis over all the rest of Peloponnesus, Amythaon, the son of Cretheus, and cousin of Endymion on his father's side - Pindar Olympian 1  Pelops: The fame which stems from Pelops’ games at Olympia Is visible from afar – the games where The contest is for fleetness of foot And daring deeds of strength pushed to the limit. For the rest of his days the victor enjoys honey-sweet tranquility, As far that is, as the games can provide it; (because of his aethlon) The highest good for every mortal Is indeed that which comes to him day by day - Pausanias, 5.8.3 – 4: [5.8.3] Augeas too held them, and likewise Heracles, the son of Amphitryon, after the conquest of Elis. [5.8.4]: Iolaus used to be charioteer to Heracles. So Iolaus won the chariot-race, and Iasius, an Arcadian, the horse-race; while of the sons of Tyndareus one won the foot-race and Polydeuces the boxing-match. Of Heracles himself it is said that he won victories at wrestling and the pancratium. - Pindar Olympian 3 (For Theron, Chariot Race 476 BCE)  2 foundations for games “For by now altars had been dedicated to his father (Zeus) ….And he had laid down the great games’ holy principle of judgment And had established the four-year cycle for his festival, To be held beside the sacred banks of Alpheus; But the land of Pelops grew no lovely trees In the dales of the son of Cronus….. Departing for Olympus, he instructed them To take charge of the admired games, Where men compete in prowess and swift chariots are driven. - Pausanias, 5.8.5 Olympic as a memory After the reign of Oxylus, who also celebrated the games, the Olympic festival was discontinued until the reign of Iphitus. When Iphitus renewed the games, men had by this time forgotten the ancient tradition, the memory of which revived bit by bit, and as it revived they made additions to the games - Anacharsis - The Strangeness of Greek Athletics: “Now I want to know what is the good of it all. To me it looks more like madness more than anything else. It will not be very easy to convince me that people who behave like this are not wrong in their heads.” - Herodotus (“Father of History”) as Spectator of Scythian Customs Example: Greeks on Scythians on Issedonians: “When a man's father dies, all the near relatives bring sheep to the house; which are sacrificed, and their flesh cut in pieces, while at the same time the dead body undergoes the like treatment. The two sorts of flesh are afterwards mixed together, and the whole is served up at a banquet. The head of the dead man is treated differently: it is stripped bare, cleansed, and set in gold. It then becomes an ornament on which they pride themselves, and is brought out year by year at the great festival which sons keep in honour of their fathers' death.” • Solon. “At Olympia a wreath of wild olive, at the Isthmus one of pine, at Nemea of parsley, at Pytho some of the God's sacred apples, and at our Panathenaea oil pressed from the temple olives. What are you laughing at, Anacharsis? Are the prizes too small?” - Anacharsis  Questioning the value of the athlon: “Oh dear no; your prize-list is most imposing; the givers may well plume themselves on their munificence, and the competitors be monstrous keen on winning. Who would not go through this amount of preparatory toil, and take his chance of a choking or a dislocation, for apples or parsley? It is obviously impossible for any one who has a fancy to a supply of apples, or a wreath of parsley or pine, to get them without a mud plaster on his face, or a kick in the stomach from his competitor.” - Solon  The Symbolic Value of Victory No Pain, No Fame: “My dear sir, it is not the things’ intrinsic value that we look at. They are the symbols of victory, labels of the winners; it is the reputation (doxa) attaching to them that is worth any price to their holders; that is why the man whose quest for fame (eukleia) leads through toil (ponos) is content to take his kicks. No pain, no fame; he who covets fame must start with enduring hardship; when he has done that, he may begin to look for the pleasure and profit his labours are to bring.” - Anacharsis  only one victor: And do you mean to say such a number can be found to toil for a remote uncertainty of success, knowing that the winner cannot be more than one, and the failures must be many, with their bruises, or their wounds very likely, for sole reward? - Inevitability of Losing (odds are so small)  Epictetus, Stoic Philosopher (55-135 CE) “So you wish to conquer in the Olympic Games, my friend? And I, too... But first mark the conditions and the consequences. You will have to put yourself under discipline; to eat by rule, to avoid cakes and sweetmeats; to take exercise at the appointed hour whether you like it or not, in cold and heat; to abstain from cold drinks and wine at your will. Then, in the conflict itself you are likely enough to dislocate your wrist or twist your ankle, to swallow a great deal of dust, to be severely thrashed, and after all of these things, to be defeated.” - Solon on Happiness (Eudaiomonia) “Someone with vast wealth is no better off than someone who lives from day to day, unless good fortune attends him, and sees to it that, when he dies, he dies well and with all his advantages in tact…. The person who has and retains more advantages than others, and then dies well is the one who deserves the description of “most happy.”. It is necessary to consider the end of anything, however, and so see how it will turn out, because the god often offers prosperity to men, but then destroys them utterly and completely.” - Plutarch, Life of Theseus  Emulation through stories: But Theseus had long since been secretly fired by the glory of Hercules, held him in the highest estimation, and was never more satisfied than in listening to any that gave an account of him; especially those that had seen him or had been present at any action or saying of his. Theseus entertained such admiration for the virtue of Hercules, that in the night his dreams were all of that hero's actions, and in the day a continual emulation stirred him up to perform the like. - The Purpose and Effect of Training  Solon “Accordingly we devise elaborate gymnastic exercises, appoint instructors of each variety, and teach one boxing, another the pancratium. They are to be habituated to endurance, to meet blows half way, and never shrink from a wound. This method works two admirable effects in them: makes them spirited and heedless of bodily danger, and at the same time strong and enduring.” - Solon:  Training- Harder than Competition: Further, we accustom them to running, both of the long distance and of the sprinting kind. And they have to run not on hard ground with a good footing, but in deep sand on which y
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