Final Exam Review

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
Charles Stocking

Final Exam Review Lecture 33: Melancomas: Virtue of Beauty Dio Chrysostym st - Greek Orator, Writer, Philosopher, and Historian of the Roman Empire, during 1 Century CE. - In Rome during Vespasian’s Reign (69-79 CE). o Favourite of vespasian - Under reign of Domitian, Dio was exiled. o During exile, Dio dressed as a beggar and lived the life of a Cynic Philosopher.  Cynic way of life: People could gain happiness by rigorous training and by living in a way which was natural for humans, rejecting all conventional desires for wealth, power, sex, and fame. Instead, they were to lead a simple life, free from all possessions. - Exile was lifted under reign of nerva Boxing Review - Introduced in 688 BCE - Used himantes (gloves with leather straps) o Oxys were hard hitting gloves designed to add more pain) - No rounds in boxing, loser quits by holding up a finger or getting knocked out - Refer to pictures: o Diadoumenos –  headband (athlete); likely pentathlete (beauty of the athlete; unmarked face) o Head of boxer Satyros  Boxer; boxing wounds o Terme Boxer  At rest sitting down with head turned; can’t tell if victor or loser  Cauliflower ear on terme boxer (bottom right) Melancomas th - Victor in Boxing in 207 Olympiad (49 CE) - Focus on defense (supposed to be undefeated) o Known for athletic beauty - Tactics of Melancomas: o “He had trained so rigorously and went so far beyond others in toilsome exercising that he was able to remain for two whole days in succession with his hands up, and nobody could catch him letting them down or taking a rest, as athletes usually do. Then he used to force his opponents to give up, not only before he himself had received a blow but even before he had landed one on them. For he did not consider it courage to strike his opponent or to receive an injury himself, but thought this indicated lack of stamina and a desire to have done with the contest. But to last out the full time without either being done up by the weight of his arms, or becoming out of breath, or being distressed by the heat — that, he thought, was a splendid achievement." o Wins by outlasting opponents  Said to survive for 2 days straight - Died while in training Beauty (Kallos) + Courage (Andreia) - Melancomas had courage and beauty - Dio states how he thinks athletics are superior to war o Theres no virtue in killing innocent people (war) o Athletics is the best of the best o Swords give an advantage to people and doesn’t allow them to demonstrate bodily excellence - Kleos vs nostos o Fame vs homecoming o Kleobis and biton o Achilles (passage) Melancomas should stand as a model (passage) Lecture 34: Pausanias Description of Greece Pausanias: - Greek travelerndnd philosopher - Lived in the 2 Century CE, 110-180 CE, - Most Famous for his “Description of Greece” – a geography/cultural history of Greece. o 10 books describing cities and sanctuaries of mainland Greece. - Pausanias’ Purpose: to describe “All things Greek”: panta ta hellenika (1.26.4) o “For from the beginning the plan of my work has been to discard the many trivial stories current among the several communities, and to pick out the things most worthy of mention – an excellent rule which I will never violate.” - Modern criticisms: o Pausanias is thought to be a person of little knowledge as he never visited Greece  Quoted by Williamowitz o James frazer said if Pausanias knew he was going to be critiqued so hard he may have not ever wrote the desciptions of Greece Description of Greece (KronosZeus Clymenos/Endymion(Deucalion) Pelops Heracles) st - 1 ndage: Began with mythic history of Greece - 2 stage: Greeks created after flood of Deucalion o After the flood of Deucalion, Pausanias 5.8.1: “Later on there came (they say) from Crete Clymenus, the son of Cardys, about fifty years after the flood came upon the Greeks in the time of Deucalion.” o Story of the flood:  Two stories: one zeus destroys peole and thows rocks over shoulders to create greeks and the second is they destroy themselves - 3 stage: Pelop and peleponnese o Pelops establishes the games (founder of Olympic games) th - 4 and last stage: attributing another foundation of games to heracles - Then hesoids ages of man (why life is bad today) o Starts with age of gold,  No work, no problems – just romance and dying o Age of silver,  In their youth for hundred years and then they grow old and die  Zeus destroys them as they do not honour the gods o Age of bronze  War and fighting is all they know  Zeus didn’t have to kill them as they’d kill themselves o Age of Heroes  Have a type of immortality  Contain Heracles, theseus, and achilles o Age of Iron  Age that the author is writing in  Saying men are just getting worse and worse Problem with games: - Pausanias said that the events happened all at once when we know that the events came one by one. (incorrect) Pausanias remembering each event Stadion: 776 BCE Diaulos724 BCE- Dolichos, 720 BCE – Wrestling/Pentathlon: 708 BCE- Boxing 688 BCE - 4 horse Chariot 680 BCE- Pankration 648 BCE- Hoplitodromos – 520 BCE: Lecture 35: Lucain, Anacharsis, The strangeness of sport Lucian - Rhetorician and Satirist nd - Lived in the 2 Century CE (125-after 180 CE) - Traveled throughout Ionia, mainland Greece, Italy, and Gaul giving rhetorical performance of his work. Solon(638-558 BCE) - Responsible for major constitutional reforms in the city of Athens. o Example: Abolished all debts for Athenian citizens (including debt slavery) - Divided Athenian citizens into 4 classes based on wealth and production of agricultre: o pentakosiomedimnoi (would produce 500 bushels of wheat); Hippeis would produce 300 bushels of wheat); Zeugitai (200); Thetes (less than 200) - Prevented export of all agricultural products, except olive oil. Anacharsis - “Scythian Philosopher” who traveled to Athens to become friends with Solon. - The first foreigner who received the priveleges of Athenian citizenship. - Introduced the “outsider’s perspective” on native habits and customs. - The Strangeness of Greek Athletics: o “Now I want to know what is the good of it all. To me it looks more like madness more than anything else. It will not be very easy to convince me that people who behave like this are not wrong in their heads.” - Brought the idea of cultural relativism: different cutures value different things - Ethnographic surrealism: A heterogeneous mixture of cultures and concepts held at a point of irreconcilability, patched together with a collage of materials Solon vs Anarchis on the value of athletics - Anarchsis: the prizes the athletes are fighting for are worthless - Solon: competitors aren’t fighting for value but fame - Anarchsis: odds of winning are so low, why compete? o Epictetus says the same thing in his passage - Solon: sports gives athletes the freedom to occupy themselves with training and a goal to work towards o Also thought children should hear athletic stories as it gave them something to look up to and want to achieve o Solon thinks sports builds character and prepares children for war o Trainin should be harder than competition so children are prepared - Anarchsis: athletics is not the same as war - Solon: if you workout early, then you have more energy for the rest of the day  energy supplies energy Lecture 36: Ancient Medicine and athletics Ancient Greek Medicine - Hippocrates of Cos – “The Father of Western Medicine;” Most famous ancient Greek doctor. 460-370 BCE. - First major physician who attributed diseases primarily to natural causes rather than “the gods.” - First to describe many diseases and medical conditions; o Characterized Illnesses as “acute, chronic, endemic, epidemic.” - “Hippocratic Oath”: Written after the death of Hippocrates o Example: Beginning: I swear by Apollo the Healer, Asclepius, Hygeia, and Panacea, and I take to witness all the gods, all the goddesses…. I will prescribe regimens for the good of my patients according to my ability and my judgments and never do harm to anyone Galen of Pergamon (129-200/216 CE) - Greek Physician, Surgeon, Philosopher in the Roman Empire. Most famous doctor of antiquity - Came up with the theory of the humours o Body has four humours (Sanguine, choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic) which determine level of health - Galen, Introduction to the Protrepticus: (technai = skill) o “The crucial difference between animals and humans, is seen in the great variety of technai which this latter animal (human) performs, and from the fact that the human alone has the capacity for knowledge: he can learn whichever technai he wishes.” - Galen is anti-athletics (believes in skill/knowledge) o Says athletes don’t have a soul - Even Hippocrates thought athletics was dangerous o Galen supported him many times!! Tuche vs Techne (chance vs skill) - Tuche: the story of the blind helmswoman o “On a ship that is fiercely tossed by a storm and flooded by waves that threaten to sink her, you would be a fool to hand the rudder over to a blind person.” Levels of technai - Those around the god (first level) o Geometers, mathematicians, philosophers, doctors, astronomers, and scholars. - Second level o Painters, Sculptors, grammarians, carpenters, architects rd - 3 level o All other forms of technai Techani vs beauty - Dio, Melncomas: beauty is the greatest virtue - Galen: beauty is not even useful for getting money. Money-making requires skill Two types of technai: - Mental vs manual o Manual technia (or labour) gives out when the body reaches old age, but mental does not Lecture 37: Philostratus gymnasticus: The “art of athletics” Philostratus Gymnasticus - Our only surviving handbook of Ancient Athletic Training. - Written during the 3 Century CE - Philostratos, 172-250 CE - Part of second sophistic movement - Thought certain parts of the body should be in proportion to each other (wanted us to view the athletes with unrealistic standards ) Anti-athletics - Seneca talks about how athletics doesn’t help athletes. In the end it comes down to Sweating and drinking - Galen’s Arguments: Athletics? “There is a danger that gymnastikê may deceive some young men into supposing it a Technê.” o Not healthy, but dangerous (Practice in excess rather than moderation) o Does not cultivate the mind (example: Milo) o Manual Technai, ones that depend on the body are not sustainable. Back to Philostratus - Athletics was not just technai (skill) but Sophia (knowledge) - Paidotribes is the one who wears out the athletes (the trainer) - Gymnatses vs paidotribes o Gymnasts have inside knowledge of the workings of the body - Tetrad = 4 day sequence of training o First day prepares athlete  Short intense excersize with quick movement  Alarm phase and resistence phase of GAS o Second increases intensity  Test of stored strength  Athlte moves from resistence phase to exhaustion phase o Third relaxes  Relaxing day  Recover from exhaustion phase o Fourth meditates  Meditation day teaches how to escape ones opponent and how not to release on escaping o Body goes through 3 phases  Alarm (mobilize resources)  Resistence/reaction (cope wiuth stressor)  Exhaustion (reserves depleted) Abuse of athletic training - Gerenos (a wrestler) just won the Olympics - Celebrated too much after his victory - Over trained him to the point that he died as punishment Judges in Olympia - Only judged whether the child was of age, if he was a bastard, and where he was from Philostratus and wrestling - Described body proportions for wrestlers… not long necked or short necked but with a neck like Heracles Internal Logic of Philostratus’ History of athletes 1) Mythic Heros as wrestling against otherness 2) Greek historical athletes emulated Herakles (Milo, Pouludamas), or were worshipped in cult (Hipposthenes, Promachos, Glaukos) 3) Defining Greek Identity against otherness: Pouludamas status. 4) Philostratus on origins of wrestling Generational Decline: ages of man, ages of athletes Hesiod, Works and Days 106 – 201 Golden Age  Silver Age  Bronze Age  Heroes  Iron Age Pausanias’ Mythic Olympic History Age of Cronos  Age of Zeus Age of Deucalion (1 Mythic Olympics)Age of Pelops  Age of Heracles (Last Mythic Olympics) Philostratus’ “Ages of Athletes” Mythic Hero Athletes Historical Greek Athletes  Fathers us (Heracles,Thesus, Peleus)(Milo, Pouludamas, etc) Philostratus’ Gymnasticus Why pursue Ancient Athletics as a Sophia a form of knowledge, and not just as a technê? Why Attempt to imitate the impossible ideal of ancient Greek sculpture? Answer: Nostalgia Greek nostos = Return home Return to the idealized Greek past that was lost during the Roman era (according to Philostratus) Lecture 38: The End rd Ancient Athletics? Roman Empire: 3 century • 235-284 CE = “Crisis of the Third Century” – 25 different emperors ruled Rome (“soldier emperors”) • Diocletian gains power as Emperor, 284-305 CE – Appointed co-emperor, Maximian in 285 CE (position of “augustus), – plus two “junior co-emperors” (position of “caesar”) in 293 CE: Calerius and Constantius • Tetrarchy: Each emperor, co-emperor and junior emperor ruled over 1/4 of the Empire Christianity - During Diocletian’s reign, most serve persecution of Christians - 313 CE Two Emperors, Constantine (East), Licinius (West) create the “Edict of Milan” to end persecution of Christians. - Constantine became sole Ruler of Eastern and Western Empires in 325 CE - Christianity becomes the dominant Religion of the Roman Empire, and Constantine officially converts to Christianity. - Constantine moves the capital of the “Roman” Empire to the Greek city of “Byzantium” and renames it “Constantinople” o (Present day Istanbul) - Roman spectacle was also a major venu for christisn persecution o Began IN 1 century CE with Nero How does Early Christianity reconcile with Ancient Greek Athletics? - Ancient Olympic Games and other athletic events were, fundamentally, Religious Festivals - Ancient Athletics seems fundamentally against early Christian sentiments of “asceticism”: i.e. renunciation of “worldly flesh.” Intolerance of Polytheistic Worship - Edict of 346 CE : the closure of temples "in all places and in all cites" and threatening death and the confiscation of property for anyone who sacrificed - End of the games  394/393 CE: Popular Date for end of the Olympics - Statue of Zeus moved to Constantinople Palace Of Lausus - Lausus: Eunich at the court of Theodosius II (reigned 408 – 450
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