Classics 2800B Note.docx

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2800A/B

Lesson 02 VerbsIntroductionRecall we covered adjectival subjects meaning pertaining or characterized byEach of these verbs do a different job hence we need multiple wording to mean the samethingIn English y like ish basically turn nouns and verbs into adjectivesFor example if a question is given cordialin English this could be heart like hearty and heartishine likes to attach itself to animal related nounsstemsIn Greeks ine attaches itself to chemical compoundsA good dictionary will tell you that ish means almost but not quite pertaining to ie blueishNoun Forming SuffixesTake verbs and adjectives and make nouns out of itNouns can be either abstract or concreteAbstract nouns do not exist in real word but we invent them For example evil integrity courage and etc You cannot measure these quantitativelyConcrete nouns pen light wind which can be quantifiedAbstract noun forming suffix ityConcrete noun forming suffix arium aryCordiality state pertaining to the heart or quality pertaining to the heartEM A condition pertaining to the heartUrbaneityurbanity In general English suffixes get attached to English stems latin suffixes are attached to latin stems It is rare that there are hybridsIn the quiz write like this Question gravitiyGravL heavyityL state ofEM Etymological Meaning State of being heavy You have to define ity first and then gravary forms concrete nouns and has the meaning of A place forie Sanitarium has 3 Latin parts to itEM Getting back to the condition of being sound Sanity state of being healthyIn English th forms the noun Healthy the condition pertaining to healthAquarium a place for waterLibrarium a place for booksExerciseA place for bodiesL Corporarium 11Characteristics of a bearL Ursine 6Quality characterized by acting like a citizenL civility 8When you seein front of a wordmentalitythis means that the word never existed in Latin but was created based on Latin rules simply because it makes senseMentality state pertaining to the mindHistorical linguistics looking at changes in languages over time Relatively a new discipline IndoEuropean Language Family of languages that are connected by common ancestral language These languages are referred as Cognate born togetherBreak Grimms Laws this is how we get into historical linguistics Looking at the evidence we have Grimm noticed that letters pt and k undergo shift in certain IndoEuropean languages ptkf th hPed Latin Pod Greek and Foot English You can see that there is a shift Piscesfish TresThreeThis is an example of retrograde analysis If you could go in one direction you could go back through another wayCentum centavohundredProtoIndoEuropean proto means very first this is the term given to the mother language where all languages descended fromLooking at two words skirt and shirtit is probable that these two words meant the same thing Skirt is the earlier version of the word Shirt is the latter version Screech and Shriek originally meant the same thingLanguages could be cognate words can be cognate Basically cognate indicates that these descended from a common ancestor Key characteristic is that ALL LANGUAGES HAVE THIS However there exists contrast to this and they are called LOAN WORDS Example coffee caffe kaffee kahowa These words ARE NOT COGNATE This is the case where the word was invented by one language and artificially loaned over to other languagesExercise42 Terminus terminL endEM Etymological meaning EndMM Modern meaning EndYou do not have to analyze us This is not a suffix prefix and does not change a part of the stem ie NV NAdj etc34 AtrociousAtrociL fierceousL pertaining toMM Terrible18 VulgateVulL common peopleateL pertaining toMM Version of the bible translated for the common peopleSewer comes from exaquariumExaquarium place for water for outsideEnglish hates adopting words that ends in vowel for example if we say that person is atrici it sounds weird Thus ous is added to compensate for that and we say that person is atrociousTo describe someone who is empty we say That person is vacuous not that person is vacuCivil disobedience disobedience for the cause of citizen
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