EXAM NOTES- 2907.pdf

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Livy and the Etruscans February 7
Livy- Book One
Other ethnic groups mentioned by Livy:
o Sabines- “The Rape of the Sabine Women”; start populating Rome, absorb
Sabine race; justified by the Romans as the right thing to do; joint rule of
Romulus and Tatius (Two kings, rise of non Romans into roman government
very quick)
o Albans- brought to Rome, removed from their homelands and integrated into
Rome; legitimizing Rome’s actions
o Trojans- story that all Romans are descended from Trojans (Aenius)-
connection to heroic Greek past; Romans mixture of Trojan settlers and
o Arcadia- Evander of Arcadia is Greek; shows influence of Greece on Rome;
Evander started Lycian festival (later Rome Lupical)
o Corinth- Demartus of Corinth; more Greek influence, introduced writing and
pottery to Rome
Etruscans and Romans
3 of the Roman kings were supposedly Etruscans (started with Tarquinius, followed
by two other Etruscan kings)
Livy refers to this as rule by a foreign power conglomerated with Rome
Physical aspects of culture that, according to Livy come into Rome:
o Cural Chair- official chair that magistrates were supposed to sit on
o Lictors- low level officials (bodyguards) for magistrates and consuls, carried
fasces [root of fascism] (double headed shaft)
Other writers on the influence of the Etruscans:
o Strabo- “It is further said that the triumphal and consular, adornment and in a
word that of all the rulers was transferred to Rome from Tarquinia as also
fasces, axes, trumpets, sacrificial rites, divination, and all music publicly used
by the Romans”
Lots of cultural and political influence on the Romans from the
o Diodorus Siculus (fl. 60-30 BCE)- “ They were also authors of the dignity
which surrounds rulers, providing their rulers with lictors and an ivory stool
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and a toga with a purple band; and in connection with their houses they
invented the peristyle…and these things were adopted for the most part by
the Romans who added them to their own political institutions”
Roman Symbols of Power
Tomb of the Warrior (Tomb of the Lictor)- early representation of the double axe,
came from Vetulonia early 7th century BCE; archaeological evidence of fasces,
thousands of Etruscan tombs that portray this axe
Also found on roman symbols of Power
o Theater of Marcellus 13/11 BCE
o Cancellaria Relief c. 80-85 CE
Some artifacts also depict the Cural chair (Etruscan and Roman)
o Terra-cotta relief plaque, Murlo 650-575 BCE
Tombs of the Augurs, Tarquinia c. 520 BCE
o Gladiatorial games and beast hunts
o Etruscans found of gruesome torture, Romans didn’t approve however had
Roman Games, took them very seriously; some of the game go back to
Etruria, popular on tombs, took place to honour the dead
Tradition of funeral games carry on throughout roman history
Alter of the Lares- Augustan period, shows stylized Lituus and bird
o Roman officials read signs of the birds, roman proud of this ability (Livy-
romulus and remus and the birds)
o Many important decisions in roman life based on “signs” of the birds (Augury)
Idea of Etruscan religion
o Augury
o Idea of pulmarium- sacred barrier around the city
o Etruscans famous for being Haruspices (Haruspex- Etruscan priest)- red
animal parts (especially liver) and thunder and lightening
o Piacenza Liver (second half of the 2nd century BCE)- found in Etruria, writing
all over it in Etruscan, makes connections between each part of the liver and
how it corresponds with gods and the future
Evocatia- Romans would ask the gods from a city they were about to conquer to
leave the city and come to Rome [Livy 5.21-22]
o Done to Carthage and Vulci
o Shows appreciation for other religion, adoption of parts of foreign religions
o Seems as though Romans do this as much as possible
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