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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2900

Northern PeoplesFebruary 28SyncretismRomans would assimilate other cultures gods into their own religionThe process whereby various godnames and godnatures are mingled so as to unite the creeds of different groups and provincesInterpretario Romano the Roman habit of replacing the name of a foreign deity with that of a Roman deity considered somehow comparable o Could remain very separateColigny CalendarSmall bronze fragments survive found in central France nd Calendar from 2 Century AD about 150 years after the territory was conquered by Rome Caesar62 months each divided in half light and dark corresponds to the waxing and waning of the moonAlso had good months 30 days and bad months 29 daysRecord of festivals o Ex Festival of Lughnasadh Celts gathered and had a festivalcouncil meeting where they discussed politicsCalendars significant in life because they tell when events such as markets elections festivals etc were happeningThis deviation from the Roman calendar is significant because it shows that even though the Celts were conquered they still followed their own calendar showing a resistance allows us to see a chronology of CeltRoman interaction and history shows fundamental difference in daily lifeCeltic identity isnt completely wiped out by Rome preservation of identityGermans and Celts portrayed in Art and ArchitectureShown in victory monuments Arch of Septimus Severus Temple of Janus etcThis tradition also went outside of Rome st Victory Arch at Carpentras France 1 Century BCE o Celebrates a victory over the Gauls shows Celtic prisoners of war dressed very unRoman o Standing under Roman trophy o Erected in the territory of the conquered right in front of the people who are depicted on the monument o Serves as warning from Romans daily reminder of their subservience to the Romans Tropaeum Alpium at La Turbie France 6 BCE o Prominent monument seen from the coast white marble highly visible o Celebration of Victory of Augustus over the tribes of the Alps o Message of conquest as well as assimilation o Similar art as was on Carpentras prisoners under roman trophy which is decorated with roman values o Huge inscription legible for the people standing at the bottom of the monument o Lists Augustuss achievements and all of the alpine tribes which were conquered 44 tribesOrange Arch Orange France 2127 CE o Erected by city legionary veterans that had settled in Orange o Conquered by Tiberius o Pictures of Gauls and Celts likely Germans which were chained under Roman symbols of power o Explicit imagery of warfare battle of Romans armored against Germans identified by their lack of clothes makes them seem barbaric uncivilized o Not necessarily realistic roman depictions of battles very onesided o Showed Germans being trampled and cowering from soldiers wanting to flee o Shows utter conquest of German peoples and the superiority of roman military and culture o Romans shown as strong good armor completely dominating the battle looks like they are at ease o This arch was part of the gate of the city served as constant reminderTropaeum Traiani o Trophy of Trajan celebrates the conquest of Dacia o Similar imagery barbarians shown in pants or naked being dominated by Romans o Romans shown as strong powerful barbarians look odd compared to civilized Romans o Refers to their cowardice archer hiding in the tree firing upon Romans o Images of families moving on carts with children o Shows savage conquest of Dacia conquest reminder of what the Romans could doTrajans Column o Roman Forum Rome 113 CE celebrates Dacian wars o Rings of imagery depicts warfare follows similar theme as monument outside of RomeThrough artifacts and artwork other cultures are depicted as barbariansGreece March 1Horace Epistles 2115663 14 BCArgues that although Rome conquered Greece militarily Greek culture has managed to take over parts of RomeEx started writing literature first writers of roman history wrote in Greek roman playwrights didnt write new plays adapted old Greek ones
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