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Northern Peoples February 28
Romans would assimilate other cultures gods into their own religion
The process whereby “various god-names and god-natures are mingled
so as to unite the creeds of different [groups] and provinces
Interpretario Romano- the Roman habit of replacing the name of a foreign
deity with that of a Roman deity considered somehow comparable
o Could remain very separate
Coligny Calendar
Small bronze fragments survive, found in central France
Calendar from 2nd Century AD, about 150 years after the territory was
conquered by Rome (Caesar)
62 months, each divided in half (light and dark, corresponds to the waxing
and waning of the moon)
Also had “good” months (30 days) and “bad” months (29 days)
Record of festivals
o Ex. Festival of Lughnasadh- Celts gathered and had a
festival/council meeting where they discussed politics
Calendars significant in life because they tell when events such as
markets, elections, festivals, etc. were happening
This deviation from the Roman calendar is significant because it shows
that even though the Celts were conquered they still followed their own
calendar showing a resistance, allows us to see a chronology of
Celt/Roman interaction and history; shows fundamental difference in daily
Celtic identity isn’t completely wiped out by Rome, preservation of identity
Germans and Celts portrayed in Art and Architecture
Shown in victory monuments (Arch of Septimus Severus, Temple of
Janus, etc.)
This tradition also went outside of Rome
Victory Arch at Carpentras, France (1st Century BCE)
o Celebrates a victory over the Gauls, shows Celtic prisoners of war
dressed very un-Roman
o Standing under Roman trophy
o Erected in the territory of the conquered, right in front of the people
who are depicted on the monument
o Serves as warning from Romans, daily reminder of their
subservience to the Romans
Tropaeum Alpium at La Turbie, France (6 BCE)
o Prominent monument, seen from the coast, white marble highly
o Celebration of Victory of Augustus over the tribes of the Alps
o Message of conquest as well as assimilation
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o Similar art as was on Carpentras (prisoners under roman trophy
which is decorated with roman values)
o Huge inscription, legible for the people standing at the bottom of the
o Lists Augustus’s achievements and all of the alpine tribes which
were conquered (44 tribes)
Orange Arch, Orange France (21-27 CE)
o Erected by city, legionary veterans that had settled in Orange
o Conquered by Tiberius
o Pictures of Gaul’s and Celts, likely Germans which were chained
under Roman symbols of power
o Explicit imagery of warfare, battle of Romans (armored) against
Germans (identified by their lack of clothes, makes them seem
barbaric, uncivilized)
o Not necessarily realistic, roman depictions of battles very one-sided
o Showed Germans being trampled and cowering from soldiers,
wanting to flee
o Shows utter conquest of German peoples and the superiority of
roman military and culture
o Romans shown as strong, good armor, completely dominating the
battle, looks like they are at ease
o This arch was part of the gate of the city, served as constant
Tropaeum Traiani
o “Trophy of Trajan”- celebrates the conquest of Dacia
o Similar imagery, barbarians shown in pants or naked, being
dominated by Romans
o Romans shown as strong, powerful; barbarians look odd compared
to civilized Romans
o Refers to their cowardice (archer hiding in the tree firing upon
o Images of families moving on carts with children
o Shows savage conquest of Dacia; conquest reminder of what the
Romans could do
Trajan’s Column
o Roman Forum, Rome (113 CE)- celebrates Dacian wars
o Rings of imagery; depicts warfare; follows similar theme as
monument outside of Rome
Through artifacts and artwork other cultures are depicted as barbarians
Greece March 1
Horace, Epistles (2.1.156-63)- 14 BC
Argues that although Rome conquered Greece militarily, Greek culture
has managed to take over parts of Rome
Ex. started writing literature, first writers of roman history wrote in Greek,
roman playwrights didn’t write new plays, adapted old Greek ones
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When they captured Greece they became more civilized, slightly
feminized away from their tough farming roots
Pliny the Elder, Natural History (33.53)
Juxtaposition between the good things of conquering Greece and the
harmful parts
One on hand makes them appreciate wealth, luxury, and culture; raises
them to a higher intellectual level however it makes them greedy
Lose all restraint and morals trying to constantly gain material goods
Increases a desire for foreign exotic goods; giving up roman ideal/moral
for Hellenistic luxury
Tensions between those who spend excessively on these materialistic
items and those who can barely afford food (disparity of wealth)
“A fatal coincidence that gave us at one and the same time a taste for the
vices and an opportunity for indulging in them”
Marks the decline of the empire, disregarding the ways of the fathers of
Bias against philosophers and fortune tellers that were often associated
with Greece; shows concern for increasing influence of Greek
Philosophers often kicked out of the city in times of political upheaval,
feared that they had enough intellect to sway and influence the people into
taking over the government
Tacitus, Agricola (21)
¨The following winter was spent on schemes of social betterment.
Agricola had to deal with people living in isolation and ignorance, and
therefore prone to fight; and his object was to accustom them to a life of
peace and quiet by the provision of amenities. He therefore gave private
encouragement and official assistance to the building of temples, public
squares, and good houses. He praised the energetic and scolded the
slack; and competition for honour proved as effective as compulsion.
Furthermore, he educated the sons of the chiefs in the liberal arts, and
expressed a preference for British ability as compared with the trained
skills of the Gauls. The result was that instead of loathing the Latin
language they became eager to speak it effectively. In the same way, our
national dress came into favour and the toga was everywhere to be seen.
And so the population was gradually led into the demoralizing temptations
of arcades, baths, and sumptuous banquets. The unsuspecting Britons
spoke of such novelties as “civilization”, when in fact they were only
features of their enslavement.
Cicero, Pro Archia- 62 BCE
What were the charges against Archias?
o Claimed citizenship illegally
What was Cicero’s defense?
o Refutes the other lawyers evidence (didn’t appear on any lists of
citizenship, even if he did he didn’t deserve it)
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