Chapter 9 comp sci.docx

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Department
Computer Science
Course Code
Computer Science 1032A/B
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Prof

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Chapter 9 – IS strategy, governance and ethics - Organization’s goals and objectives is to determine its competitive strategy - Use Porter’s five forces model to consider the structure of the industry under which a company operates o Given a structure, we could’ve develop competitive strategy for he organization o This strategy is supported through acitivites in the value chain which consist of a collection of business processes o Business processes are supported by informationa systems - Information system exist to help achieve company’s goals and objectives - Information system should support competitive strategy (understanding of technological and organizational systems) What is information technology architecture? - IT architecture: plan for a city , it is the basic framework for all the computers, systems and information management that support organizational services o More services and different technology is used -> more complex - Enterprise architect -> people who do this work ^ create a blueprint of an organization’s information systems and the management of these systems o Blueprint should provide an overview that helps people in the organization better understand current investments in technology and plan for changes o Usually considers organizational objectives, business processes, databases, information flows and operating systems, appliocations andsoftware and supporting technology - How does IT architecture look like? o An architecture is usually a long document with many sections that include some pretty complicated diagrams as well as management policies (ex. Privacy, sourcing and seucirty) and discussion of future changes to the architecture - Use Zachman freamwork to development an IT architecture (by John zachman by IBM in the 1980s) o Based on 6 reasons for communication (what – data, how –fucntion, where – network, who- people, when- time, why - motivation) o And the oterh is based on stakeholder groups (planner, owner, designer, builder, implementer and worker)the intersection of these two dimentsions helps provide a relatively holistic view of the enterprise o Architecture is important when an organization is considering significant changes, such as mergers, acquisitions, divestiture or rapid growth o Useful to see how your company is working and how it will have change in order to work even more effectively o In a framework of enterprise architecture : moving down provides higher levels of detail , moving across shows different perspectives on systems What is alignment, why is it important and why is it difficult? - Process of matching organizational objectives with IT architecture is often referred to as alignment (MIS researchers have suggested that alignment sould be viewed as an ongoing process)IT architecture to business objectives is a challenge that continually evolves - Alignment process takes advantage of IT capabilities as they develop while at the same time maintaining a balance between business objectives and IT architecture - What works for one organization as a balacen may not work for another since alignment depends on business goals, the organizational contect and the state of IT architecture - Supporting business objectives with appropriate IT invstments remains a critical part of IT managmement What is information governance? - Some committee or political party has the ability to decide on expectations for performance , to authorized appropriate resources and power meet expectations and perhaps eventually to verify whether expectations have been met (ensure on behave of the firm’s shareholders) - Governance is often designed to work toward the development of consistent, cohesive management policies and verifiable internal processes - Establisling rules such as sourcing, privacy, security and internal investments, goal of governance is to improve the benefits of organization’s IT investments overtime - Increasing interest in information systems governance is liely a result of laws such as the Sarbanes Oxley act in the United sates and Bill 198 aka the Budget measures act in Ontario o These laws force companies to comply with standards for collecting, reporting and disclolsing informationa - Legislation known as the Sarbanes –Oxley Act in the United States and the Budget Measures Act (or Bill 198) in Ontario has affected many information systems, particularly accounting information systems o Sarbanes – Oxley Act governs the reporting requirements of publicly held companies, prevent corporate frauds lilel those perpetrated b WoldCOm etc o Ontario -> budget measures act -? Increase the level of responsibility and accountability of executive management of publicly held canadain companies treade on the TSE o Both require management and to create internal controls sufficient to produce reliable financial statements and to protect the organization’s assets and also external auditor must also issue an opinion on the quality of the internal controls o One example of internal control is the separation of duties and authorities o IS governance in the future will require stakeholders to have inpujt into important IS decisions What is an information system audit? - Examaniationa nd verification of a company’s financial and accounting records and supporting documents by an accredited professional - Ex CA, CMA, CGA (financial audit -> financial governance of an organization) - The concept of an information systems audit is analogous to a financial audit -> focus is placed on informatona resources that are used to collect , sgtore , process and retrieve information (IS - standards were first developed for 1970s) and have been evolving with chances in technology - The information systems aujdit and control association is an organization that was formed in 1969 by a group of individuals that was in charge of auditing controls for newly developed computer systems -> became a leader in developing knowledge and standards relating to IT audit and IT governance - The Certified information systems auditor (CISA) certification is recognized globally and has been earned by 60000 professionals - In Canada, the canaaidna institute of chartered accountants
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