Hardware and Software.docx

7 Pages
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Department
Computer Science
Course Code
Computer Science 1032A/B
Professor
Diane Goldstein

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Description
Hardware and Software Information Technology  A student more than 100 years ago o Ford’s first car sold in 1903 o Wright brothers first powered flight in 1903 o Typewriters rare, maybe a radio o No telephones, ATMs, computers or internet o A completely different experience!  Y2K (year 2000) problem o Result of expensive computer memory in the early days of computing o Two-digit to store year values  Knowing something about where technology has been can help us understand where technology is headed  Early computers (1939-1952) o Complex and expensive o Single user o One program at a time o Housed at universities o 1947, ENIAC – Mark I o 1952, FERUT and U of T Mainframes: 1952 to Present st  1 digital computers o Used in business and government st  1 generating vacuum tubes o IBM 650 ($200,000 - $400,000) o Add or subtract 16,000 numbers per second nd  2 generation transistor o Smaller, easier to maintain, reliable rd  3 generation (mid 1960’s) o Operating systems o Multiprocessing/timesharing o Cost millions o Mini-computers  Still being used today o Fast processing, massive storage Microcomputers: 1975 to Present  Integrated circuits  Small microprocessors  Monitors  Keyboards  Portable floppy disks  Software  1981 PCs o IBM, Apple, Compaq, Texas Instruments, integrated circuits Networking PC: 1985 to Present  Local Area Networks (LANs) o Linking many PCs together o Shared access to data, printers and peripheral devices  Wide Area Networks (WANs) o The Internet  Email, web browsing Technology Lessons  Technology advances o Moore’s Law o Take advantage of the changes  Small is powerful o Use it anywhere  Networking in the thing o Communication and collaboration Computer Hardware  Hardware o Electronic components  Input, process, output and store data according to instructions encoded in computer software  Basic hardware categories: o Input o Processing o Output o Storage Central Processing Unit  CPU o “Brains” of the computer o Speed (MHz) o Fast CPU needed for:  Complicated calculations and manipulations  Processing large graphics files Special Function Cards  Augmented basic capabilities  Sound card o Provides better sound quality  Video card o Enhances clarity and speed of video display  NIC (Network Interface Card) device o Support wired or wireless connections o Typically included Main Memory  Size (MB, GB)  Speed  Increased amount of memory allows for many applications to be run at the same time Computer Data  Binary digits (bits) o Used to represent data  Represented as either zero or one  Bytes o Bits grouped into 8-bits o Specifications for size of memory  K – kilobytes, 1024 bytes  MB – megabyte, 1024K bytes  GB – gigabyte, 1024 MB  TB – terabyte, 1024 GB Hard Drive (Magnetic Disks)  Provides long-term storage  Storage capacity (size) o Affects performance  Data recorded in concentric circles  Disks spin and read/write heads move in/out  Time required to read data depends on: o Rotational delay o Seek time Optical Disks  Types: o CDs o DVDs  Data stored differently  Different capacities and speed  ROM – read-only memory  R – record data once  RW – rewritable Video Displays  Two types: o CRTs (cathode ray tubes)  Big and bulky o LCDs (liquid crystal display)  Slimmer  Specifications o Screen size (in inches) o Resolution (in pixels) Pixels  Number of pixels depends on o Size of monitor and creation of image  Resolutions o 640 x 480, 800 x 600, 1024 x 768, 1280 x 1024, 1680 x 1050, 1920 x 1080 o Optimal grid for sharpness and clarity What Do You Need To Know...  Me
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