IT Projects and Acquiring IS.docx

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Computer Science
Computer Science 1032A/B
Diane Goldstein

IT Projects and Acquiring IS Acquiring Information Systems  Four basic methods for acquiring software applications: o Buy it and use it o Buy it and customize it (most common) o Rent or lease it o Build it yourself  Acquiring new software is NOT the same as acquiring now information systems because there is a lot more to think about in systems than jut software Information Technology Projects  Components: o Scope (objective) o Start and end date o Temporary use or resources o Unique o Accomplish something new (change)  Large information technology component o In terms of budget or personnel o New email application, CRM or ERP installation  Require fundamental change to business process o New IT supports the changes  Not exclusively about technology o Impact on data, procedures and people Information Technology Project Risks  CHAOS Report (1994) o 16% delivered on time, budget and scope o 30% cancelled before delivering anything  Sauer, Gemino and Reich Report o 66% success rate (2 out of 3) o 25% general failure independent of size  Difficult to o Estimate time o Budget o Scope  Risks to consider o Lack of experience o Lack of support o Lack of participation o Unclear project requirements o Technical complexity  Evaluation o Process performance  Project on time/on budget o Product performance  Benefits realized  Pathways through model o Forces of evil/good Information Technology Project Management (ITPM)  Collection of techniques and methods used to plan, coordinate and complete IT projects including: o Planning tools  Work breakdown structure  Hierarchy of tasks required to complete project  Each task is broken into smaller tasks that can be managed and estimated  Define tasks dependencies  Estimate task durations  May be used with project management software  Final WBS plan known as baseline WBS o Budgeting methods o Graphical scheduling methods  Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)  Gantt Charts o Risk management techniques o Communication planning o High-tech team development PMBOK Project Management Guide  Project Management Institute (PMI) compiled best practices, process and techniques o PMBOK – Project Management Body of Knowledge o Endorsed by ANSI and ISO  Five process groups o Stages in life of project  Initiating  Planning  Executing  Monitoring and controlling  Closing  Nine knowledge areas o Factors managed throughout life of project  Project integration  Scope (requirements)  Time  Cost  Quality  Human resources  Communications  Risk  Procurement Systems Development  Systems analysis and design o Creation and maintenance of information systems  Development involves all five components  Requires more than programming or technical expertise  Human relation skills  Business knowledge  Understanding of group dynamics  Information systems are never commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) o Adapted to fit need of business and people Systems Development Processes  Methodologies: o Systems development life cycle (SDLC)  Whether systems changes are major or minor, most companies go through a systems development life cycle  Classical process with five phases  Systems definition o Management’s statement defines new system  Requirements analysis o Identify features and functions  Component design o Based on approved user requirements  Implementation o Implement, test and install new system  System maintenance o Repair, add new features, maintain o Rapid application development (RAD)  Design/implement/fix  Breaks up design and implementation phases into smaller chunks  Uses computer assistance  Incremental development  Requirements  Less detailed because users are actively involved  Characteristics  Design/implement/fix development processes  Iterative development process  Continuous user involvement throughout  Extensive use of prototypes o Mock-up of aspect of system  Joint application o Teams conduct application activities  Use of Computer-Assisted Software/Systems Engineering (CASE) tools o Object-oriented systems development (OOD)  Technique  Object-oriented programming  Object oriented programming (OOP)  Designing and writing computer programs  Easier and cheaper to fix and adapt  Business applications o Slower to use this method (integration with non-OOP programs)  Diagramming technique for OOP development o Unified Modeling Language (UML)  Unified Process (UP)  Designed for use with Unified Modeling Language (UML)  Five phases o 3 similar to SDLC, 2 are different o Inception o Elaboration o C
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