Computer Science 1032 Midterm- HTML, XML, Excel, Chapters 1-5

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Computer Science
Computer Science 1032A/B
Diane Goldstein

Computer Science Midterm- HTML, XML, Excel, Chapters 1-5 Lecture 1 XML carries information while HTML displays information XML – designed to store and transport data, focus on what data is HTML – designed to display data, focus on what data looks like Internet Protocols & Uses Email-SMTP File Transfer- FTP WWW(HTML)-HTTP E-Commerce Architecture User HTML via HTTP Server Web Farm(commerce server application<>Other Applications)SQL and Data Database DBMS Computer Web Pages Encoded in HTML -Tag used to define data element -Hyperlinks point to other web pages -Heading provides data about page -Body contains content Transmitted by web servers Used by Browsers -Processes HTTP protocol -Receives & displays document -Transmits responses Markup Languages Is a language that annotates text so that the computer can manipulate the text and display it. Types -Presentational -Procedural -Descriptive -GML/SGML -HTML/XHTML -XML Hyper Text Markup Language First markup language of the WWW Used to deliver content to the web Open standard (W3C – World Wide Web Consortium) Readability Easy to use Portability Structure of an HTML file File contains Content -Anything that is not an instruction Instructions (presentation) -Instructions inserted as “tags Predefined Tags Control how the text is displayed Insert images into the document Insert links to other documents HTML Tags Normally occur in pairs A pair of tags surrounding the content Start tag & end tag TEXT Tags are NOT case sensitive Doesn’t matter if you use capitals or not, still means same thing Document Set Up Entire document ….. Head containing ….. browser information ….. ….. Contains ….. content & ….. associated ….. presentation ….. ….. Basic HTML Structure Title is displayed in title bar of browser …. Heading Tags There are 6 heading levels -H1 H6 -H1 is the LARGEST -H6 is the SMALLEST To create a heading Enclose the text between the opening and closing tags for the heading level I.e. My Webpage Tags Formatting - italics - bold - Underline Layout - center the text - new paragraph - break, start a new line - horizontal line, draw a line (Tags can be NESTED) Bold Underline Text Images Images are added using tag You do not have to use The SRC parameter is used to indicate the source of the image I.e Image formats GIF – Graphics interchange format JPG (JPEG) – Joint Photographic Experts Group BMP – Windows bitmap Images from different locations -specify location in SRC attribute as the exact location of the image file URL Uniform Resource Locator A URL contains information about -Protocol(procedure) used to access the document -Address of a document on the Internet Protocols HTTP – hyper text transfer protocol Transmits files on the WWW FTP –file transfer protocol Exchange files over the internet SMTP – simple mail transfer protocol Sends email over the internet An Example URL protocol, web server, folder, document Anchors Anchor tags ( and insert: Hyperlinks Link to another document on the WWW Bookmarks Named location within the document Invisible to the reader 1) Anchors as links Link declared with HREF attribute Hypertext Reference – (HREF) HREF specifies the URL of the link Content inside the anchor tag (link will be displayed as this word or can be an image 2) Anchors as bookmarks Entry point on a web page Link on the same page information Link to another page information Tables & Attribute BORDER Controls the width of the table border Normal border=1 If left out - table displayed without a border ROW Tables declared one row at a time Enclosed in and Inside the row are cells CELL Cells specified with and Content inside the TD tags are displayed as the content of the cell i.e. Row 1, Cell 1 Row 1, Cell 2 Lists Ordered -Marked with numbers/letters Unordered -Marked with bullets 1) Ordered &  ordered lists Within the OL tag List item, tag indicted the items on the list Numbered list by default (1,2,3,4….) TYPE parameter controls the list numbers/letters “A” – letters (A,B,C,D….) “a” – lowercase letters (a,b,c,d….) “I” – roman numbers (I,II,III, IV…) “I” – lowercase roman numbers (i,ii,iii,iv…) I.e. Letters List Apples Bananas Carrots 2) Unordered List &  unordered list Within the List item, indicated items on the list TYPE parameter “disc” – solid disk default “circle” – open circle “square” – solid square symbol i.e. Unordered List Bananas Grapes Oranges Nested List Sunday Monday Morning Night Creating and HTML file In notepad type HTML code Save as with an HTM/HTML extension (info.html) Start browser Click File > Open File will be displayed in browser “publishing” file on a web server allows others to see it Learning from other web pages View in browser Click View > Source  will show html code Click File > Save  if you want to save it HTML editors MS word documents can be saved as html But does not have access to the more advanced HTML features: animations, forms, scripting Dreamweaver & FrontPage Generates HTMl and Java script Text Editors Used to help control HTML code Publishing a web page Step 1: Activate your personal web space on panther, this process creates a folder named public_html Step 2: Copy and files you want to the public_html account Use an FTP program (software transfer files) like WinSCP or Fugu for mac Step 3: Test your webpage Use any browser and go to: XML Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Standards of formats for common business documents Provides for the exchanging of documents Used in point-to-point exchanges Now can be used over the internet Exchanging data between computer systems XML and Data Interchange eXtensible Markup Language Offers advantages over other methods Developed by W3C Not dependent on any software/hardware Does not do anything Importance: Enables data SHARING Can be used on the web XML…. Allows interaction between - Independent computer systems - Different operating systems Allows independent systems to interact with one another - Defining data (structure, syntax and type) - Validating, interpreting & processing data Applications may be written in any programming language Integration of applications Organization/Industry can define tags for their specific data Examples: - supplier name - contract number Using XML in business XML can improve efficiencies Structure defined in an XML schema Documents created in XML Information sent is validated against schema Schema may be published on the web Granting access to all businesses to allow them to validate documents received Example of XML Industry Standards Financial Reporting -XBRL, XML Web Services Web services Most software vendors support XML Standards that facilitate distributed computing Use the Internet Tool for application interaction Allows programs to access each other remotely No need to develop proprietary system Data transmitted in XML documents XML schemas define Automatic validation Web Services Retailers Application Internet Distributors Inventory Application OR Manufacturers Application XML Formatting Simple easy format XML Document type definition (DTD) XML Schema Document (data) Text file with tags Similar to HTML No predefined tags XML Document XML tags Define data (structure, syntax and type) Metadata (text) Data about the data Elements Tags within the document Start & End Tags content Tags ARE case sensitive Create descriptive name tags (no spaces) Document should have one root element Structure is defined by the grouping and/or nesting of elements Elements can follow other elements Elements can be nested within other elements Attributes Additional data to describe elements Name/Value pairs, in the start tag Attribute value contained in quotes content Well formed XML document Will comply to a character set definition One and only one root element Elements delimited by start and end tag Tags nested not overlapping Attribute values quoted XML example: Original Employee Travel Expenses: Employee Name Department Expense Date Item Amount Schema Jane White Clothing June4th Car Rental 50.00 XML Namespace XML document may contain elements from different sources ad these elements may have duplicate names Provides method to avoid element names conflicts Used in XML schemas Placed in the start tag of an element Syntax -xmIns:namespace-prefix=”namespaceURI” Solve conflicts with prefix “namespaceURI” Namespace uniform resource identifier URI – identifies an internet resource Provides a unique name for namespace The most common URI is a URL (webpage) Document Type Definitions (DTDs) & Schemas Defines items of an XML document Defines document structure Elements Attributes Defines a standard for exchanging data Formal Description Written in XML declaration syntax Description sets out Element names Where they occur How they all fit together Provide format for all XML documents written to the that definition DTD when inside an XML file, DTD wrapped in Doctype definition -element declarations]> [element declarations] - - -Elements with one or more items of content (children) are declared witht eh name of the content elements (child) inside parentheses - Defining occurrences of elements: - “” Element occurs once - “+” Element occurs once or many times - “?” Element occurs zero or only one time - “*” Element occurs zero or many times XML Schemas: Why? -Successors to DTDs -Standard set by the W3C -Expected to soon replace DTDs -Are extensible to future additions -Richer and more powerful than DTDs -Written in XML -Support data types -Support namespaces XML Schema Defines - Elements that an appear in a document - Attributes that can appear in a document - Data types for elements and attributes - Default and fixed values for elements & attributes XML Schema Definition (XSD) - Description of the structure of and XML document Schema definitions are XML documents XML Schema Elements - Root element o A declaration of the namespaces (xmIns) used in this definition o The version of the schema o The language used in the schema o Plus many other attributes o Exp. - Declaration elements o Xsd:element  Declares an element in the document o Attributes of an element include:  Name- the name of the element  minOccurs  minimum number of occurrences  default is 1  for optional use “0”  maxOccurs  maximum number of occurrences  default is 1  for unlimited use “unbounded” - Defining elements o Defining element  “complexType”  used to group element  xsd:complextype o Defining content models  “sequence”  Defines the sequence for elements in a group  xsd:sequence - Defining content models XML Example Recipe Name Ingredient(s) Item,quantity Instructions XML schema ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Lecture 1 Information Systems and You Information Systems System Components interacting to achieve some purpose Information Systems Components that interact to produce information Five Componenents Hardware Software Data Procedures People Management Information Systems Develop & use of IS that help businesses achieve their goals and objectives Key elements Development and Use Information systems Business goals and Objectives 1) Development and Use: Your Part Active role Ensuring the system meets your needs Understand how the system evolved Consider user’s needs during development Learn how to use the system Consider: Security Backup Recovery 2) Achieving Business Goals People perform the activities of a business They design, produce, market, account MIS empowers users to reach goals Exists to assist in meeting the objectives of the business Developed for the “right” reasons Information Technology vs. Information Systems Information System (IS) System of hardware, software, data, procedures, and people the produce information Information Technology (IT) Raw Technology Hardware/software Data components IT: methods, inventions, standards, products IT alone will not help an organization achieve goals IS includes people in the equation This impacts how a system is designed and implemented IT must be embedded into an IS to help accomplish objectives Technology must be combined with people and procedure components IS will make IT useful Successful businesses take advantages of these differences to improve their systems Importance of IS to our economy? The information and communications technology (ICT) sector includes companies involved in: Software and computer services Cable and other program distributors Telecommunications services ICT manufacturing ICT wholesaling Information Systems Everyone used numerous information systems Basic business uses E-mail Accessing web pages Using word processors and spreadsheet software Creating presentations with PowerPoint Instant messages There is a Competitive Advantage when…. Think creatively about problems, challenges & opportunities Create innovative applications using emerging technologies There is a need to expand and include: Mobile devices Project management software Business graphics Collaborative systems Gaining a Competitive Advantage… Think about IT and IS when you consider the problems and opportunities that confront your department or organization To remain productive, there is need for innovation You need not be a developer of technology Think creatively about problems, challenges and opportunities in your business/organization Shape of things to come: Moore’s Law Published in 1965 by Gordon E. Moore (Intel) The complexity for minimum component costs has increased at a rate of roughly a factor of two per year… certainly over the short term this rate can be expected to continue, if not to increase…” Predicts “the number of transistors per square inch on an integrated chip doubles every two years.” Important trend in the history of hardware Stood the test of time Trend has continues for > 40 years Expected to continue for at least another decade Predicting the future Difficult sue to innovation Apply iPod Sophisticated phones …. Business of IT and IS How will IT and IS affect the way we live and work? Hal Varian (Google economist) suggests: Business changes because of advances in IS and IT Mobility devices will change what it means to go to work Industries continues to make significant changes due to the shifts in technology A View of the Future ICTS Jobs 2.0 Report David Ticoll suggests that within the next decade: Unlimited storage will be almost free Analytical software will reveal hidden treasures Collision of the real and virtual world, as wide-area networks become cheap, reliable and widely available These technology trends will enable deep, powerful, performance-enhancing innovations that will be felt in almost every industry The Future of IT Canadian economy is undergoing fundamental changes – past and future shifts Need to innovate and to adapt to the changing world Our Focus Learning to use tools to accomplish a business purpose Understanding both business and technology Using technology to gain a competitive advantage ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Collaboration Skills Key business skill in the twenty-first century Distributed collaborative teams Becoming increasingly common Collaboration skills help project teams Become more productive Do better work Waste less time Collaboration is… Two or more people Working together Toward common goals, result, or product Requires: Communicating Sharing information/knowledge/time Combining skills Feedback and Iteration Step 1 – one person produced something Step 2 – others review and comment Step 3 – if changes needed, make changes Step 4 – if changes made, go to step 2; otherwise stop REMEMBER: Collaboration takes several weeks, not a few hours or days Takes time to create a collaborative team Collaboration Communication Two key elements: Communication skills and group member abilities Availability of effective communication systems Content Management Changes: who, what, when, why Privileges to create, edit, delete and read-only Workflow control Specifies order of tasks, processes for handling rejected changes and dealing with exceptions Often not needed fro one-time, short-term project An Effective Team A team… A small number of people Complementary skills Committed to a common purpose, goals and approach Hold themselves mutually accountable R. Hackman (Harvard Professor) three characteristics of team effectiveness: 1. Accomplish goals and objectives that satisfy sponsors and clients 2. Over time, working together is easier and more effective 3. Members learn and feel fulfilled Team member behavior influenced by: Natural skills and abilities Childhood formative environment Past team experiences Attitude (and skill) of team leader Nature of the work Member’s interests and abilities Improve your collaboration skills by… Show up… get involved Assess yourself Try new behaviors… and watch what happens R
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