Compsci 1032 Midterm Notes

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Western University
Computer Science
Computer Science 1032A/B
Diane Goldstein

COMPSCI1032 HTML - E-Commerce Three Tier Architecture o User Tier: Computers that have browsers that request and process Web Pages o Server Tier: Computers that run Web Servers generating Web pages in response to requests from browsers and processing the application programs. A facility running multiple Web Servers is sometimes called a Web Farm. o Database Tier: Computers that receive and process the requests to retrieve and store data. Structured Query Language (SQL) is the language used for Database requests. - Markup Languages - Types o Presentational  Infer structure directly from the file o Procedural  Focuses on presentation of text  Used in professional publishing applications o Descriptive  Text fragments with descriptive information  GML/SGML: General/Specialized Markup Language  HTML/XHTML: (Extensible) Hypertext Markup Language  XML: Extensible Markup Language - Tags o tag appears in the tag and is used to display the contents between the start and end tag in the title bar of the browser o is italics o is bold o is underline o centers the text o is a paragraph (creates space before and after paragraph) o is a break, starts a new line and has no end tag o is a horizontal rule, draws a line (no end tag) o adds images (no end tag) The SRC is for the source. o is an anchor tag and has an end tag o Information is hypertext reference, links to web page o specifies the bookmark location on the web page and provides the name in quotes o Info will bring you to bookmark on same page o info for other page o & o are rows o are cells o ordered list o indicates te items on the list o unordered list o - There are 6 heading levels, h1 is the largest and 56 is the smallest o My Webpage o Goes in between the body tags - Tags can be nested (hello) - Tables o o Border controls the width of the table border, typical setting is border=1 o If omitted, table displayed w/o border o Tables declared one row at a time  Rows   Can contain one or more cell declarations  Cells specified with - Lists o Ordered  displayed with letters/numbers  Defined with  indicated the items on the list  TYPE controls the list numbers/letters  “A” (A,B,C,D)  “a” (a,b,c,d)  “I” (I,II,III,IV)  “i” (i,ii,iii,iv) o Unordered  displayed with bullets  Defined with  Type:  “disc” solid disc (default)  “circle” hollow circle  “square” solid square symbol XML - EDI  electronic data interchange - XML  eXtensible markup language o Allows interaction between independent comp systems and different operating systems o Structure of data is defined in an XML Schema document o Documents containing data created in XML o XML files:  DTD  Document Type Definition  XML Schema  Document (data)  Contains XML tags (Define data: structure, syntax and type)  Metadata (text)  data about data o XML files are text files with descriptive tags o Elements  content  start and end tags, case sensitive  Create descriptive tag names (no spaces)  1 root element  Structure defined by the grouping and/or nesting of elements  Attribute value in quotes  content  ex. 500 o XML Namespace  Used in schemas  Placed in the start tag of an element  Xmlns:namespace-prefix=”namespaceURI”  “namespaceURI”  Namespace Uniform Resource Indentifier  URI  Internet resource o Document Type Definitions (DTDs) & Schemas  Define items of an XML document  o XML Schema  Defines:  Elements that can appear in a document  Attributes that can appear in a document  Data types for elements and attributes  Default and fixed values for elements and attributes  Elements:  Root Element (one per schema) o Declaration of the namespaces used: o  Declaration elements  Defining elements  Defining content models  Xsd:element  declares an element in the document  Attributes of an element include: o Name o minOccurs  min number of occurrences, default is 1, for optional use 0 o maxOccurs  max number of occurrences, default is 1, unlimited is “unbounded”  “complexType”  used to group elements; xsd:complexType  “sequence”  defines the sequence for elements in a group, xsd:sequence o XML Parser  Software module (an object) that can read, update, create and manipulate an XML document Chapter 1 - System  Components interacting to achieve some purpose - Information System  Components that interact to produce information. o Five components of an information system: o Hardware o Software o Data o Procedure o People - Management Information Systems (MIS)  development and use of IS that help businesses achieve their goals and objectives o Key elements: o Development & Use o Information Systems o Business Goals & Objectives - Information Technology  raw technology o Hardware/Software o Data components o IT: Methods, inventions, standards, products - Moore’s Law  Predicts “The number of transistors per square inch on an integrated chip doubles every two years.” - Effective team: o Accomplish goals and objectives that satisfy sponsors and clients o Over time, working together is easier and more effective o Members learn and feel fulfilled - Content Management and IT for sharing content o No Control o Version Management o Version Control Chapter 2 - Business Processes/Systems  interacting to achieve a business function o Network of:  Activities  Transform resources and info of one type into another  Payment (activity) transforms Quantity Received (info) and Shipping Invoice (info) into Payment to Supplier(resource)  Resources  Items of value, external or organization  Customers, suppliers, goods  Facilities  Structures used within the business process  Inventories, databases, factories, equipment  Information  Used by activities  Determines transformation  Same example as activities. - Data o Meaningful bits of information - Information o Knowledge derived from data o Data organized and processed to provide meaning o Data processed by summing, ordering, averaging, grouping, comparing - Good Information o Accurate o Timely o Relevant o Just Sufficient o Worth its cost - Business Process Management (BPM) o A field of management that promotes the development of effective and efficient processes through continuous improvement and innovation. o Methods:  Total Quality Management (TQM)  Six Sigma  Lean Production - Information Systems & Decision Making o Decision Level  Operational  Managerial o Decision Process  Structured  Unstructured - Operational  day to day activities such as how much coffee to purchase - IS: Transaction Processing System (TPS) o Collect, store, modify and retrieve transactions - Managerial  Allocation and utilization of resources such as how to budget for computer hardware - Strategic  Broader-scope, organizational issues such as should a new product line be started - IS: Executive Information Systems (EIS)  MIS for senior executives - Structured decisions o Understood and accepted decisions o Applying knowledge to make an informed decision o Ex. Formula for computing reorder quantity - Unstructured Decision o No agreed-on decision-making method o Not standardized o Ex. Predicting future direction of economy - Decision steps o Intelligence gathering o Alternatives formulation o Choice o Implementation o Review Excel - Spreadsheet  Rectangular table/grid of information (financial information) - Cell Entries o Constant  Entry that does not change  Can be a numeric value or descriptive o Function  Predefined computational task o Formula  Combination of numeric constants, cell references, arithmetic operators and functions  Always begins with an equal sign (=) - Cell Referencing o Absolute Reference  Remains constant when copied  Used when cell reference must not change  Prefixed with “$” character  Copying =$B23*D$9-$K$12 from A5 to B6  B6 would contain =$B24*E$9-$K$12 o Relative Reference  Adjusts during a copy operation  Copying =B23*D9-K12 from A5 to B6  B6 would contain =C24*E10-L13  Formula copied 1 row down and 1 column to the right  Every cell in the formula has 1 added to its row and column designators o Mixed Reference  Row or column is absolute & other is relative - Functions o Logical o Statistical o Financial o Lookup & Reference - Boolean Expressions o IF (today is Tuesday) AND (it is September) THEN I will bake an apple pie OTHERWISE (else) I will bake a pumpkin pie  AND  Boolean operator  (Today is Tuesday)  Boolean variable  (It is September)  Boolean variable  ((today is Tuesday) AND (it is September))  Boolean expression o IF my salary is greater than $100,000.00 THEN I will go to Hawaii, OTHERWISE I will go to Kitchener  Turns into : IF (salary > 100000.00) THEN I will go to Hawaii, OTHERWISE I will go to Kitchener  (greater than) is called a relational operator o If my bank balance is greater than or equal to $20 and I have my ATM card then I can withdraw $20  Boolean variable  I have my ATM card  Relational operator  is greater than or equal to  Boolean operator  and  There are two Boolean values  True and False  Boolean variable represent only one of these values  “I have my ATM card” is either true or false - Relational Operators o Yield Boolean results true or false o Six relational operators  Equal to =  Not equal to <>  Less than <  Less than or equal to <=  Greater than >  Greater than or equal to >= - Boolean Operators o NOT  Complements results of a Boolean expression  If expression is true, NOT yields false and vice versa o AND  Combines two Boolean Expressions  Combined expression is true only when the two expressions are both true o OR  Combines two Boolean Expressions  Combined expression is true if one or both expressions are true  False if only both are false o Example: Age is NOT greater than or equal to 19 o Entered as: =NOT(Age>=19) o Example: Balance is gre
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