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Computer Science
Computer Science 1032A/B
Diane Goldstein

Computer Science Chapter 5- Database Content and Management What is Content? · In the broadest sense, content is property o Intellectual property- form of creative endeaour that can be protected through a trademark, parent, copyright, etc. How can content be organized? · Challenge: processing and storing the right content and then getting the right content to the right person in the right format at the right time · Data management- how to efficiently and effective store and process data bytes o Traditionally handles by database management system (DBMS) · Web content management system (CMS)- what an employee will access if they want to place some content on the organization’s website What is the purpose of a database? · The purpose of a database is to keep track of things · Key difference between databases and spreadsheets is that spreadsheets have a single theme whereas databases have multiple themes What does a database contain? · Database- self-describing collection of integrated records o Plus relationships among the rows in tables, plus metadata (special data) that describes the structure of the database · Columns are also called fields · Rows are also called records · Characters are also called bytes · Agroup of similar rows / records is called a table or a file · Akey- a column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table (every table must have a key) · Foreign keys- columns are key, but they are keys of a different table from the on in which they reside o Relational databases- databases that carry their data in the form of tables and that represent relationships using foreign keys · Metadata- data that describes data (always part of a database) What is a DBMS, and what does it do? · Database application system- things like reports, queries and application programs that make database data more accessible and useful · Database management system (DBMS)- program used to crete, process and administer a database o Ex. DB2, Access, SQL Serve, Oracle, etc. o Used to create the database and it’s structure, to process the database and to administer the database  Structured Query Language (SQL)- international standard language for processing a database What is a database application? · Database application- a collection of forms, reports, queries and application programs that process a database o Forms- used to read, insert, modify and delete data o Report- shows data in a structured format o Query- a search using keywords · Multiuser processing; problems include: o Lost-update problem What is the difference between an enterprise and a personal DBMS? · Enterprise DBMS- process large organizational and workgroup databases · Personal DBMS- designed for smaller, simpler database applications Computer Science- Chapter 7- IS for CompetitiveAdvantage How do organizations gain a competitive advantage using IS? · Well-designed IS supports business strategy · IS can make primary and support activities more productive · Increased productivity when organization is more efficient and effective What are fundamental types of IS within organizations? · Calculation systems o Very first IS o Single purpose o 1950-1980 o Purpose: to relieve workers of tedious, repetitive calculations o Ex. Payroll calculations, general ledger / accounting work, inventory tracking, etc. o None of them survive today o Technology: mainframe, punch cards · Functional systems o 1975- Present o Facilitate work of a single department or function o Problem: isolation / work independently of each other (sometimes called “islands of automation) o Ex. Human resources, finance, manufacturing o Technology: stand-alone PCs, mainframe, LANs · Integrated (Cross-Functional) systems o 2000- Present o Entire business process o Problems: a lot of coordination required, no clear line of authority, peer competition can be fierce, interdepartmental rivalries o Has given breed to interorganizational systems (between two or more related companies) What are functional systems? · Product management is the primary functional system for marketing o Lead tracking (records prospects and keeps track of sales contacts with potential customers), sales forecasting and customer management (generate follow up business from existing customers) are other examples · Operations systems are used by non-manufacturers, such as distributors and retailers o Order entry, order management, inventory management and customer service are example of operations · Manufacturing information systems support the transformation of materials into products o Two manufacturing philosophies:  Push production planning- creates a production plan or schedule and pushes goods through manufacturing and sales  Pull production planning- responds to customer demand o Scheduling systems, manufacturing operations systems · Human Resources Systems o Include payroll, related compensation systems, recruiting and assessing employee performance · Accounting functional systems o Examples include general ledger, financial reporting, accounts receivable and accounts payable systems o Also includes cost accounting, budgeting, cash management and treasury management (stocks and bonds, borrowings, capital investment, etc.) Radio-frequency identification (RFID) What are problems of functional systems? · Data duplication, data inconsistent · Disjointed processes · Limited information and lack of integrated information · Isolated decisions lead to inefficient overall activities · Increased expense What is the importance of industry standard processes? · Business process design- organizations should not automate or improve existing functional systems, rather they should create new, more efficient business processes that integrate the activities of all departments involved in a value chain · Challenges of business process design: o Expensive and difficult o Employees resist change o Ultimate outcome is uncertain · Benefits of industry standard processes o Most business design processes failed because they were tailor-made, so the company bore the cost of the design effort  Premade integrated applications saved hundreds of hours of design work o Industry standard processes- processes built into a software like those of Oracle of SAP  SAP R/3 is an example  RFQ- Request for Quotation What are cross-functional systems? · Cross-functional systems were developed to overcome the problems of functional systems; two important types: o Customer Relationship Management (CRM)- support the business processes of attracting, selling, managing, delivering, and supporting customers  Customer life cycle: marketing, customer acquisition, relationship management and loss/churn o Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)- support all the primary business processes as well as the human resource and accounting support processes  Characteristics: · Provides cross-functional, process view of organization · Has a formal approach based on formal business models o Process blueprint- comprehensive set of inherent processes for all organizational activities · Maintains data in centralized database · Offers large benefits but is difficult, fraught with challenges, and can be slow to implement · Often very expensive  Benefits of ERP · Efficient business processes · Inventory reduction · Lead-time reduction · Improved customer service · Greater, real-time insight into organization · Higher profitability What are inter-organizational systems? · Types of inter-organizational systems: o E-commerce- the buying and selling of goods and services over public and private computer networks  Merchant companies- those that take title to the goods they sell (buy goods and re-sell them) · Business-to-consumer o Typical IS is a web storefront · Business-to-business · Business-to-government  Non-merchant companies- those that arrange for the purchase and sale of goods without ever owning or taking title to those goods · Auctions o E-commerce auctions like eBay · Clearinghouses o Matches the seller and the buyer and then takes payment from the buyer and transfer the payment to the seller, minus a commission (ex.Amazon) · Exchanges o Ex. or stock market  Benefits: · Leads to dis-intermediation (elimination of middle layers in the supply chain) · Flow of price information · For the seller, produces information about price elasticity  Issues with E-Commerce · Channel conflict · Price conflict · Logistics expense · Customer service expense o Supply chain management  Supply chain- network of organizations and facilities that transforms raw materials into products delivered to customers  Four major factors (drivers) affect supply chain performance: · Facilities · Inventory · Transportation · Information o Purpose- can be transactional or informational o Availability- refers to ways in which organizations share their information o Means- methods by which information is transmitted  Three fundamental information systems involved: · Supplier relationship management (SRM)- for managing all contacts between an organization and its suppliers (supports the inbound logistics primary activity, and the procurement support activity in Porter’s model) ; supports three basic processes: o Source o Purchase o Settle · Inventory management · Customer relationship management (CRM) · Presence of IS has significantly expanded supply chain speed (dollar value of goods exchanged in a given period of time) Computer Science- Chapter 8- Decision Making and Business Intelligence What are the challenges managers face in making decisions · RusselAckoff wrote 40 years ago that there are 3 assumptions made about managers and IS o Managers have no problem making decisions if they get the data they need o Decisions are poor because managers lack relevant information o Managers are aware of the data they need · Information overload- 403 petabytes of information created in 2002 · Data Quality o Dirty data- problematic data o Missing values o Inconsistent data (ex. Phone number w/ or w/o an area code)  Data granularity- degree of summarization or detail (coarse data is highly summarize, fine data is very detailed)  Clickstream data- analyzes customers clicking behavior on a website o Data not integrated What is OLTP and how does it support decision-making? · Online transaction processing (OLTP) system- collecting data electronically and processing the transactions online; two ways to process: o In real time- processed immediately upon entry (more complex and cost more but are more up-to-date) o “Batch processing”- waiting for them to pile up What are OLAP and the Data Resource Challenge? · Data resource challenge- the challenge of using the collected date effectively · Decision support systems (DSS) or Online analytic processing (OLAP)- systems that focus on making OLTP-collected data useful for decision making · In an OLAP report (also called an “OLAP cube”) o Measure (or facts)- data item of interest o Dimension- characteristic of a measure o Report formats CAN be altered o “drill down”- means to further divide the data into more detail How do BI (business intelligence) systems provide competitive advantages? · Business intelligence (BI) system- system that provides information for improving decision making o Reporting systems  Integrate data from multiple sources and process those data by sorting, grouping, summing, averaging and comparing  Improve decisions by providing relevant, accurate, and timely information to the right person o Data-mining systems  Process data using sophisticated statistical techniques like regression analysis and decision tree analysis  Improve decisions by discovering patterns and relationships in data to predict future outcomes o Market-basket analysis  Computes correlations of items on past orders to determine items that are frequently purchased together  Improve decisions by publishing employee and others’knowledge…foster innovation, improve customer service, increase organizational responsiveness and reduce costs o Knowledge-management (KM) systems  Create value from intellectual capital by collecting and sharing human knowledge of products, product uses, best practices, and other critical knowledge with employees, managers, customers, suppliers and others who need it o Expert systems  Encapsulate the knowledge of human experts in the form of if / then rules  Improves decision making by non-experts by encoding, saving and processing expert knowledge What are the purpose and components of a data warehouse? · Purpose of a data warehouse is to extract and clean data from operational systems and other sources, and to store and catalogue that data for processing by BI tools · Metadata- is data about data What is a data mart, and how does it differ from a data warehouse? · Data mart- data collection that is create to address the needs of a particular business function, problem or opportunity o Users in the data mart obtain data from the data warehouse that pertain to a particular business function What are the characteristics of data-mining systems? · Data mining- application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data and to classify and predict o Synonym for data mining is knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) o Two categories of data mining  Unsupervised data mining- do not create a model or hypot
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