Midterm 1: REVIEW

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Computer Science
Computer Science 1033A/B
Pamela Glatt

SOCIOLOFY of DEVIANCE: MIDTERM #1 REVIEW DEFINING DEVAINCE LECTURES Social Order Hobbes (Hobbes & Rouseau) • Humans are naturally evil • Rules preserve social order • Human will always find some sort of conflict with one another Rouseau • Humans-good in natural state • About power/property and involves a social contract • More Marxist view Typology of Hierarchy (3 Different Dimensions) Deviance/Crime (Hagan) • Evaluation of social harm • Agreement about the norm • Severity of societal response Hagan's Pyramid • Consensus Crimes—Top Tier ◦ Worst type, has a high consensus/highest level of harm, most extreme punishments • Conflict Crimes—Second Tier ◦ Considerable social disagreement/debate on criminalization about harmlessness, criminal status, appropriate social response • Social Deviations—Third Tier ◦ Ambiguous types of deviant behaviours ◦ Punishment by groups other than the criminal justice system • Social Diversions—Fourth Tier ◦ Deviant behaviour associated with “lifestyle” ◦ Not criminal, calls for mild social response, causes little harmlessness Objective Explanations 4 factors that objectivists use: of Deviance • Statistical Rarity • Social Harm • Negative Social Reaction • Normative Violation Subjective Explanations Subjectivism of Deviance • Subjectivism view of deviance ◦ No “objective”/single trait shared by all deviants ◦ Rely on dominant moral codes of society • Deviance determined based on these three factors: ◦ How many people condemn a person, behaviour, or characteristic ◦ Level of power held by the people doing the condemning ◦ Intensity of their disapproval Moral Entrepreneurs – Rule Creators Rule Creators vs. Rule • Aka: “crusadors”, creates “moral panic” Enforcers • Focus on the “ends” not the “means” Rule Enforcers • New set of social control agents (ex. Police or lawyers/judges) • Focus on the “means”, not the “ends”—see that people follow the laws/rules Social Typing Process 3 stages: • Description ◦ a label is attached to a person/behaviour • Evaluation ◦ a judgement is attached • Prescription ◦ social control/regulation: ▪ Formal ▪ Informal ▪ Retroactive • Trying to change the conception and label provided to you ▪ Preventative • Trying to prevent a label from being applied to you ▪ Self-regulation FUNCTIONALIST THEORIES of DEVIANCE Biology & Lombrosso Crime/Deviance (Sheldon • Criminal/deviant individuals are primitive human beings (“modern & Lombrosso) savages”, “biological throwbacks”) • Low intelligence, animal instinct • Resemble “caveman” (large forehead, protruding ears, shifty eyes. Ect) Shledon • Body types correspond to criminal/deviant tendencies • He talks more about crime that involves physical abilities • Endomorph: fat/round-->easy going • Mesomorph: stocky/muscular-->criminal/deviant tendency • Ectomorph: long/skinny-->sensitive Demonism Demonism • People who committed crime were thought to be acting on the devil • These idea put forth by the church • Neither the individual/society has to take responsibility • Creates objective rules for identifying criminals—ascribed traits (things they were born with) • Church used a biological trait as being a demonic trait • *Focus on ASCRIBED traits Classical Theory of 5 Elements of Classical Theory 1. People are hedonistic/self-indulgent Crime/Deviance 2. Individuals have free will 3. Society is a social contract 4. Punishment is justified 5. The greatest good for the greater number • *Emphasis on the RATIONALITY of the behaviour—“Rational Actor” Functionalism Functionalism (Durkheim) • Started looking at deviance starting from society—looks at from a macro level instead of micro • Role of society: consensus, equilibrium, status quo (homeostasis) • Role of individual: perfectly socialized unit ◦ We should be properly socialized • Deviance: incomplete/problematic socialization • Solution: re-socialization, treated, and rehabilitated • *Focus on changing the individual, NOT the society Eufunctions vs. Dysfunctions • Eufunctions ◦ Positive functions of deviance in society that help maintain equilibrium 1. Increases social solidarity 2. Rule/boundary clarification 3. Testing of rules/boundaries 4. Reduces social tensions—scape goat/tension release • Dysfunctions ◦ Negative functions of deviance in society that disrupts equilibrium 1. Reduces internalization of norms 2. Difficulty in determining effective solutions 3. Creating potential for abuse of power 4. Regulation of one problem creates a new problem 5. Incarceration/treatment increases recidivism 6. Marginalization Types of Suicide • 4 types of suicide: ◦ Egotistic—individuals experience lack of integration in society ◦ Altruistic—when an individual is too integrated to society ◦ Anomic—related to anomie; individuals feel a lack of regulation ◦ Fatalistic—due to too much regulation TYPES | LOW | HIGH Integration | Egoistic | Altruistic Regulation | Anomic | Fatalistic Anomie • “Normlessness” (aka “structural strain”) • A state or condition that occurs when people experience uncertainty or anxiety in society which can cause people to engage in deviance • Anomie occurs when: ◦ Social bounds are weakened ◦ Rapid social change occurs Strain Theory Strain Theory (Merton) • Society structured in a way that there is unequal access to legitimate opportunities • This causes some individuals to experience STRAIN and there adapt in 1 of 5 ways ◦ Conformity ◦ Innovation ◦ Ritualism ◦ Retreatism ◦ Rebellion Institutional Anomie Institutional Anomie Theory Theory (Messner & • The (North) “American Dream” Rosenfeld) • Non-economic roles are devalued • Economic roles dominate non-economic roles • Economic values pervade non-economic roles • People focus so much on goals that people don't care about the means anymore • In our society it is institutionalized to attain these goals so much that it completely just takes away from our society Differential Opportunity Society's structure provides differential/unequal access to BOTH Theory 1. Legitimates opportunities (Cloward & Ohlin) 2. Illegitimate opportunities 3 types of deviant subcultures emerge 1. Criminal Gangs 2. Conflict Gangs 3. Retreatist Gangs General Strain Theory Agnew (Agnew) • In order for strain to produce deviance, it must be accompanied by a negative affect • Conditions of strain: ◦ Failure to achieve goals ◦ Loss of valued possessions ◦ Aversive treatment by others Status Frustration Result of not being able to live up to middle-class measuring rod Theory characterized by education system (Cohen) • Reaction formation: invert middle-class standards • Mutual conversion: engage in deviant behaviour WITH others in similar situations LEARNING THEORIES of DEVIANCE Differential Association Learning deviance involves: (Sutherland) • Opportunity • Techniques • Motives • **all learned from our subcultures Sutherland's 9 Principles 1. Criminal behaviour if learned 2. Criminal behaviour learned in interactions with others through communication 3. Principle part of learning occurs within intimate groups 4. Learning include techniques and motives 5. Vocabulary of motives/desires learned from definitions of legal codes 6. Person becomes delinquent due to excess of definitions favourable to violation 7. Differential association—Frequency/Duration/Priority/Intensity 8. Process of learning criminal behaviour involves all of mechanisms involved in any other learning 9. Criminal behaviour is expression of general needs/values, but is not explained by them Differential Glaser Identification • Indirect, distance reference groups can influence individuals' (Glaser) deviant behaviour • Strong media effect on deviance Techniques of 5 techniques of neutralization Neutralization (Sykes & 1. Denial of responsibility Matza) 2. Denial of injury 3. Denial of victim 4. Condemnation of the condemners 5. Appeal to higher loyalties **Focuses on the MOTIVES of deviant behaviour Differential Akers Reinforcement (Akers) • Importance of significant others— Reinforcement/Punishment/Modeling & Imitation • Decision to engage in behaviours influenced by rewards SOCIAL CONTROL THEORIES of DEVIANCE Family & Delinquency Deviant behaviour occurs in absence of controls or if controls are (Rye) ineffective 3 types of control 1. Internal: developing a conscience/sense of norms 2. Indirect: affectionate identification with parents/non-deviant individuals 3. Direct: punishment/negative consequences Containment Theory Containment Theory (Reckless) • Inner controls (pushes)—“positive sense of self” • Outer controls (pulls)—“discipline & supervision” Social Bonds Theory 4 types of social bonds dictate engagement in deviant behaviour (Hirschi) 1. Attachment to others 2. Commitment to conformity 3. Involvement in conventional activities 4. Belief in conventional norms & values Criminal behaviour –Attachment/Commitment/Involvement/Belief General Theory of Hirschi & Gottfredson Crime/Self-Control • Deviance caused by ineffective parenting which causes low self- Theory control (Hirschi & Gottfredson) • Low self-control: focus on short-term rewards, inability to plan for the future, risky behaviour, inability to resist deviant temptations, ect. 3 conditions to instill self-control in children 1. Must monitor the child 2. Must recognize deviant behaviour 3. Must appropriately punish behaviour Routine Activity Theory Cohen & Felson (Cohen & Felson) • These 3 factors must be present in order for crime/deviance to occur
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