Computer Science 1033A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Routine Activity Theory, Anomie, Subjectivism

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SOCIOLOFY of DEVIANCE: MIDTERM #1 REVIEW
DEFINING DEVAINCE LECTURES
Social Order
(Hobbes & Rouseau)
Hobbes
Humans are naturally evil
Rules preserve social order
Human will always find some sort of conflict with one another
Rouseau
Humans-good in natural state
About power/property and involves a social contract
More Marxist view
Typology of
Deviance/Crime (Hagan)
Hierarchy (3 Different Dimensions)
Evaluation of social harm
Agreement about the norm
Severity of societal response
Hagan's Pyramid
Consensus Crimes—Top Tier
Worst type, has a high consensus/highest level of harm, most
extreme punishments
Conflict Crimes—Second Tier
Considerable social disagreement/debate on criminalization
about harmlessness, criminal status, appropriate social
response
Social Deviations—Third Tier
Ambiguous types of deviant behaviours
Punishment by groups other than the criminal justice system
Social Diversions—Fourth Tier
Deviant behaviour associated with “lifestyle”
Not criminal, calls for mild social response, causes little
harmlessness
Objective Explanations
of Deviance
4 factors that objectivists use:
Statistical Rarity
Social Harm
Negative Social Reaction
Normative Violation
Subjective Explanations
of Deviance
Subjectivism
Subjectivism view of deviance
No “objective”/single trait shared by all deviants
Rely on dominant moral codes of society
Deviance determined based on these three factors:
How many people condemn a person, behaviour, or
characteristic
Level of power held by the people doing the condemning
Intensity of their disapproval
Moral Entrepreneurs –
Rule Creators vs. Rule
Enforcers
Rule Creators
Aka: “crusadors”, creates “moral panic”
Focus on the “ends” not the “means”
Rule Enforcers
New set of social control agents (ex. Police or lawyers/judges)
Focus on the “means”, not the “ends”—see that people follow the
laws/rules
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Social Typing Process 3 stages:
Description
a label is attached to a person/behaviour
Evaluation
a judgement is attached
Prescription
social control/regulation:
Formal
Informal
Retroactive
Trying to change the conception and label provided to
you
Preventative
Trying to prevent a label from being applied to you
Self-regulation
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FUNCTIONALIST THEORIES of DEVIANCE
Biology &
Crime/Deviance (Sheldon
& Lombrosso)
Lombrosso
Criminal/deviant individuals are primitive human beings (“modern
savages”, “biological throwbacks”)
Low intelligence, animal instinct
Resemble “caveman(large forehead, protruding ears, shifty eyes.
Ect)
Shledon
Body types correspond to criminal/deviant tendencies
He talks more about crime that involves physical abilities
Endomorph: fat/round-->easy going
Mesomorph: stocky/muscular-->criminal/deviant tendency
Ectomorph: long/skinny-->sensitive
Demonism Demonism
People who committed crime were thought to be acting on the
devil
These idea put forth by the church
Neither the individual/society has to take responsibility
Creates objective rules for identifying criminals—ascribed traits
(things they were born with)
Church used a biological trait as being a demonic trait
*Focus on ASCRIBED traits
Classical Theory of
Crime/Deviance
5 Elements of Classical Theory
1. People are hedonistic/self-indulgent
2. Individuals have free will
3. Society is a social contract
4. Punishment is justified
5. The greatest good for the greater number
*Emphasis on the RATIONALITY of the behaviour—“Rational
Actor
Functionalism
(Durkheim)
Functionalism
Started looking at deviance starting from society—looks at from a
macro level instead of micro
Role of society: consensus, equilibrium, status quo (homeostasis)
Role of individual: perfectly socialized unit
We should be properly socialized
Deviance: incomplete/problematic socialization
Solution: re-socialization, treated, and rehabilitated
*Focus on changing the individual, NOT the society
Eufunctions vs. Dysfunctions
Eufunctions
Positive functions of deviance in society that help maintain
equilibrium
1. Increases social solidarity
2. Rule/boundary clarification
3. Testing of rules/boundaries
4. Reduces social tensionsscape goat/tension release
Dysfunctions
Negative functions of deviance in society that disrupts
equilibrium
1. Reduces internalization of norms
2. Difficulty in determining effective solutions
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