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Comparative Literature and Culture
Comparative Literature and Culture 1020
Laurence De Looze

- Cervantes, Don Quixote - Racine, Phaedra - Mmede Lafayette, The Princess of Cleves Cervantes, Don Quixote - Life imitating art, Don Quixote try to become to book he reads, takes on the role of chivalric knight and goes out on quests - - Mimesis: when art and literature tries to imitate real life o Comes from Aristotle, this is an idealized form of real life, Aristotle uses it in poetics about theaters and drama. - Verisimilitude: the idea of Academy of Frances play and things in literature should represent what is plausible in real life, the play where the daughter marries the killer of her father is banned because it does not have verisimilitude, ties to reason blanc - Metafiction: things Don Quixote does are the things seen in other adventure, narrators stop the story abruptly and says that is all he knows about Don Quixote, the story suddenly talks about how he got an arabic text that continues Don Quixotes quest o Where the author draws the attention to the fact that it is literature and fiction o At the beginning of the second book, the main characters react to the fan fiction based off of the first book - Makes fun of the real world, it is critical of Don Quixote but also supportive of him, author mocks the chivalric romaces but realizes life would be boring without characters like Don Quixote with the childhood innocence o Don Quixote never finds success in his quests, meets death but in the end even Sancho Pasta begs for him to stay - Peripeteia: the reversal of structure of the plot/ fortune - Anagnorisis: the recognition of truth/ self and downfall/ reversal o When Don Quixote realizes that he is unable to becomes knight, the recognition on his deathbed results the reversal of fortune where he gives everything up o Key point of criticism, the reversal of dreamer becoming realist and realist becoming dreamer, Don Quixote with Sancho Pasta, it sends the message that society and change, every individual is capable of being both - Biscayan: the guy Don Quixote was fighting right before he gets interrupted in the market place - Theatrum mundi: The theatre of the world, Don Quixote wants his life to like the theatre o If all the world is a stage, that we are the actors with roles on o Don Quixotes role is of a dreamer and knight, Sancho Pasta is of a realist - Dulcinea del Toboso: assigns her a role, puts her on a pedestal as a Prince because where chivalric knight needs a damsel, where time he defeats someone, he claims the deed for her o She creates a gateway justified his actions, it fits in his Theatrum mundi, he just needs to assign a role to someone for the Princess - Knight of Mirrors: a real knight who defeats Don Quixote and is trigger/ catalyst for his change - Picaro picaresque: people born of a low class who outwits society - Ad-venturas: that which is to come, Don Quixote sets out and wonders expecting adventures to come to him, but he makes scenarios into adventures such as turning windmill in giant th - Siglo de oro: century of gold, the 17 Century, Don Quixote is written in 1605 o Arguable whether it is written during the Renaissance or the Baroque Racine, Phaedra - Baroque work from France, a very violent story but goes back to Greek Antiquity violence is performed off stage, the violence is relayed through messengers o The Baroque is the ideal of facing inward, about psychology, how we think and behaves rather than how it is expressed in actions, goes back to Augustinian thinking - Phaedra, Hippolytus, Aricia, Oenone (nurse) o Family with Anadne and Pasiphae (who conceived the minotaur with a bull), Theseus killed the bull, with string provided by Anadne, Theseus then rapes Anadne but marries Phaedra, fatal blood I) BEGINNING: DOESN'T SAY/SHOULDN'T SAY (PHAEDRA) - Doesnt say that she is on love with her son II) SAYS/SHOULDN'T SAY (PHAEDRA) - The nurse guesses it, Phaedra says that the nurse said it, not her, then she is convinced to tell her love III) DOESN'T SAY/SHOULD SAY (HIPPOLYTUS) - Takes away Hippolytuss sword, phallic symbol representing his masculinity, then accuses him of raping her, false accusation (she says what she shouldnt say) it happens between acts (get the reaction and the beginning of accusation, the accusation does not happen) o It is a Baroque inward thing, the audiences becomes the part of the play the audiences applies what is missing - However, Hippolytus doesnt say that she is trying to seduce him IV) SAYS/SHOULD SAY (PHAEDRA) - Thesuses calls on a curse on his son, an example of saying what he shouldnt say - The nurse kills herself, Hippolytus is killed, only act of violence on stage: Phaedra poisons herself, confesses (finally says what should be said) - Theseus treats Aricia like a daughter - Fatal fate: fate being the root of fatal, when Phaedra admits her love, she sees it as a fatal term (this amount of time before she dies) passion of sickness, the fatal blood lineage has also contaminated her, her mother has an attraction to whom she shouldnt love, her family is cruse, fate leads to fatal outcomes, ties back to falling in loves is like dying, love too strongly or the strongly, love becomes fatal like previously seen in Aeneas and Dido, Paolo and Francesca - Cogito ergo sum (therefore I am): privillaging the mind and the inner world before sensory information because one exist in the mind, relates to the theme of Baroque, focus on the mind and psychology, rather than the events and actions themselves Princess of Cleves, Mme Layfette - Les salons: female writers such as Marquise de Rambouillet in 17 Century(1620) have literary salon such as Hotel de Rambouillet, it is a place of intellects to meet and discuss because she wants to raise the level of discourse in the French court since she comes from the Italian court. It is important because it is a woman in power, they talk about philosophy, politics, arts, literature. Only nobles are allowed in, the more important people knows how to act with charisma and their ranks, salon types in with the Baroque with its theatricality, same ideal as Versaille, Lords and ladies would bow particular ways depending or ranks. The most inner blue chamber is reserved for the highest ranked nobles. Nobles would also bring in their manuscripts and others would help them to correct it, Princess of Cleves was probably first presented there. - Sprezzatura: nonchalance, comes from Castigliones book of Courtiers, theatricality, nobility, the qualities that make the perfect courtier is brought from Italy into the French court - Academic Francaise: Princess of Cleves confessing her wish to have an affair to her husband seems unreal, the book is about the mentality of being tempted, the temptation is in the chase, therefore she does not accept because once he has her, he would loose interest - the colour of yellow is important because it is representation of her since it is the colour that she cannot wear, he adopts yellow as her because it is a secret between them, the symbolism represents love o falling in love is in falling in love with the perception of person o it is the interpretation of things that brings in the significance to symbols o also brings in the idea of theatricality and presentation of things, the whole tabooed love and attraction turns into a game - Las Meninas by Velasquez painting, showing how art reflects life - Voyeurism: Nemour takes in pleasure in seeing Cleves without her seeming him (her looking at a portrait of him), him hearing her confession for her love o The readers are also voyeurs with the idea of seeing everything without being seen o Bringing back to the idea of metafiction - Writing during the time of Henry XIV - Siege of Mets (the portrait which Duke of Nemour participates in the battle) plays in the role of Voyeurism - Diane de Poiters: Henry IIs mistress, also his fathers mistress, the important thing is that it is standard in the court to have a mistress (a respected figure who rivals, the queen, in the text, groups of people are split between the two influences), however it upholds her moral to have an affair Goethes Faust - It is like Shakespeare for Germans - The idea of two souls, earthly vs. spiritual, two souls to pulling opposite directions, cupiditas (lust) vs. caritus o There is the masculinity and the eternal feminine o Loving for the signs and materiality vs. for what is behind it o Divide between what is available in this world, the pleasure, and the eternal feminine which symbolizes the spiritual and the divine after this world Gretchen later becomes a symbol of divine, he first pursues her in cupiditas way and later in a caritas way, she latter becomes a Beatrice figure as to Dante - Me
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