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Comparative Literature and Culture
Comparative Literature and Culture 4493F/G
Alena Robin

Saints HAGIOGRAPHY: the study of the life, miracles and practices of a Saint THE GOLDEN LEGEND: St Jacobus de Voragine compiled and interwove different th versions of the lives of the Saints in the 13 century. It organizes the Saints by days of the year - Sources are legal documents: witnesses are important – proof of a Saint’s miracles do not sustain a claim TWO FUNCTIONS OF CHRISTIAN SAINT: 1. Appealed to via prayer to intercede in human affairs 2. Set exemplary lives for Christians to emulate Importance to Middle Ages: - Optimistic and hopeful beacons amongst disease, unsafe travel, childbirth etc - Oral Tradition enabled the stories to be told often and spread easily - Saints set examples for living a Christian and pious Life TYPES OF SAINTS: HERMITS: Enemy is on inside, not out - Fighting temptation, strict rigorous diet APOSTLES MARTYRS: - Disciples of church first martyrs - Christian believers of their faith and refuse to announce despite facing death or torture  Suffering while upholding faith causes rejoice for the saint - Often symbolized by a palm leaf FATHERS OF THE CHURCH: - Evangelists = Foundation + Pillars (build on the foundation of Evangelists) = Fathers of the Church MYSTICS: Not in The Golden Legend – products of Counter Reformation - Catholics wanted NEW Saints who talked to God or had had direct contact  Attests to faith in God - Divine Ecstasy (prophets) and Marriage to Jesus common themes - Marriage to Jesus: Experiencing a vision of wedding Jesus in the presence of the Virgin as a symbol of devotion of chastity SAINT TYPE DESCRIPTION ATTRIBUTES Kateri MYSTIC * Taken to Quebec near Montreal by Lilies, Tekakwitha Jesuit Mission (Lily of the Preserved chastity for Jesus Mohawks) To be canonized October 2012 St Francis of HERMIT Born into rich family Franciscan Monk – hermit Assissi Started Franciscan Order based on clothing with three knots chastity, poverty and obedience Animals Experienced Stigmata Stigmata Patron Saint of Animals White Dove St Stephen MARTYR First Martyr. Deacon Attire Falsely accused of blasphemy – died Head Wound lapidated (stoned outside walls of Younger Man Jerusalem) St Peter MARTYR New Testament: Death foreshadowed in Old Man Gospel of John Crucified upside down Died crucified upside down (felt Keys in hand (to the unworthy to die like Jesus) kingdom) His bodily remains believed to lay under St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome St. Andrew MARTYR Crucified Diagonally – 2 days on cross  Old Man soldiers tried to cut him down but could Attached to cross w/ not ropes Brother of St. Peter Healing throats Healing Powers Soldiers cutting his ropes - Healed wife of governor of fatal sickness – told her to deny husband’s marital rights and was sent to be crucified - Patron of Throat problems St. MARTYR Apostle of Jesus (Appears in John) Cloak that never wares Bartholomew Missionary to India, Mesopotamia & Shown w/ knife and book propagated new church Often shown skinned Ordered to be executed by King’s brother - Abducted, beaten unconscious and thrown into city – washes ashore in Sicily - Crucified upside down - Flayed and beheaded beside Caspian Sea Miracle after Death: His statue was being moved by soldiers, but became too heavy so they had to stop and rest – a wall had collapsed up ahead and if they had not paused they would have been crushed Knew Scriptures by heart Patron of Anatomy St. Lawrence MARTYR Arch Deacon in Rome Laurel Leaf Emperor Philip wanted to enforce Iron Grate (where he died Church – France rebelled – assassinated - Shown with grate by Desisus upright and behind) - Upon Desius’ arrival in Rome Emperor often depicted Phillip the Younger bequeathed watching him die all his treasures to Sixtus and St.pain on his face Lawrence “Saint on a grill” - St. Lawrence had pity and gave the treasure to the poor - Whipped with scorpions - Convinced Hippolytus to convert - Healer – restored sight St. Sebastian MARTYR Born in Nabo Gull Soldier Attire rd Soldier in 3 century army Pierced with Arrows Aided martyrs Tied to tree Martyred twice 1. Bound and shot with arrows in a field (resuscitated and cared for by Irene) 2. Emperor beat him to death and threw him into latrines Healed St. Zoey of muteness Epidemic after his death – a likeness was made of the Saint to spare themselves from disease St Augustine FATHER OF Wrote Confessions & City of God Mitre CHURCH Vision: A young child on the beach Child/Shell trying to empty the sea with a shell – Bishop Attire the child was Jesus and likened the Burning heart (burning process to understanding the Holy love of God) Trinity through rational thought St Jerome FATHER OF Translated Bible from Hebrew to Greek Red Cardinal Hat CHURCH to Latin called Vulgata Or Hermit Lion: came to the monastery w/ thorn in Lion his paw, St Jerome helped him remove it Books of different and the animal stayed by his side as languages companion In a Study – writing and reading St. Gregory FATHER OF Salvation of Trajan: St Greg prayed for Crown CHURCH his soul so intensely it converted Trajan Small man in flames to Christianity after death Pope Dove is witness to divine inspiration White dove St Ambrose FATHER OF As a young child he was attacked by Mitre CHURCH bees so severely his parents thought he Crib with child would die – and if he survived he would Bees aroung mouth do great things St Ludovica MYSTIC Wished to remain an unwed virgin Divine Ecstasy (Bernini) Albertoni - Was married but became widow Mystical convulsion – a at young age commune with God - Joined Franciscan Order and sacrificed wealth and health for faith “Miracle Worker” Known for visions and levitation St Ignatius of MYSTIC/SOLDIER Founder of Jesuit Order Holding book of rules: Loyola OF GOD Born in Spanish Noble Family AD/MAIOREM/DEI/ Knight – wounded and read the Bible = GLORIAM/CONSTITU/ spiritual conversion TIONES SOCIETATIS/JESU - Abandoned army Stepping on devil “Soldier of God” – Triumphant Order to (Ignorance, paganism) defend the church Soldier Attire Recovery: Vision of Virgin and Child NOT IN GOLDEN LEGEND St Therese of MYSTIC/DOCTOR Spanish Carmelite Nun Cherub about to toss Avila OF CHURCH Pious Christian and fascinated by lives of arrow Saints (ran away from home to be Dive ecstasy martyred) Book Illness: caused visions and she inflicted tortures upon herself (friends found her diabolic) Vision: angel coming to her with arrow in her heart that was burning Founded Carmelite convent: OBEDIANCE, POVERTY, CHASTITY NOT IN GOLDEN LEGEND St Helen MYSTIC St Helen and the True Cross: Visionary in ecstasy Dreamt of desire to see the cross Jesus In search of the cross died on With the cross - 3 Crosses: St Helen found the right one because it cured an ill girl Had Basilica built to house the cross Miracles of the Cross: the sea was angry so Helen through a nail into it and it calmed Mother of Constantine (Emperor) Image used in Counter-Reformation (For finding True Cross) St Rose of MYSTIC Refused to marry Roses in hair/hands Lima Predicted earthquakes and pirates Nun Attire Devoted to prayer and penitence Rosary/Palm of Martyrs Wanted to be in Dominican Order – but Cross there wasn’t one in Lima Jesus Bouquet “Marriage To Jesus” Anchor: Lima is a port city On a postal stamp of Peru – a symbol of hope St George SOLDIER OF GOD A soldier in the Roman army, at the time White shield with Red of Christian persecution – remained a Cross Christian Dragon Battle/Slain A dragon was terrorizing a town, and Red Cape ate all the sheep, so the people started Soldier Attire sending random human sacrifices. When White Horse the king’s daughter’s name was drawn, Spear/Sword St George saved her and slayed the dragon Used a Miracle Fountain of Healing St Michael SOLDIER OF GOD An archangel who leads God’s armies to Wings war against Lucifer in Revelations White shield w/ red cross Fights the “Beast” or Satan and wins Fighting beast, often Recognized for his good deeds despite dragon or serpent like not being human St. Martin SOLDIER OF GOD NOT in Golden Legend Cut cloak Cut his cloak in half and gave the other Soldier Attire half to a beggar Beggar Had a vision that night that Jesus was Soldier on Horse wearing his cloak Knife “Look what Martin gave me” Converted to Christianity and became a Soldier of God Charged for deserting his post – offered to go naked in front of troops in battle – Jesus stopped it from happening St. SOLDIER OF GOD A large and strong man, Christopher Man and Child Christopher MARTYR sought to serve the highest master – Staff God – but saw him cross himself at Wanderer mention of the devil River Sought the Devil only to have him fear the wayside The priest there told him to pray, but Christopher could not – the priest recommended he aid people crossing river A small child needed help and Christopher carried him across, noting him to be very heavy Christ = Baby and tells him his work is pleasing Christopher travels to Lycia where Christians are being prosecuted; King sends virgins to tempt him and he converts them Orders Christopher decapitated for his Paganism St Anthony HERMIT Anthony hears a gospel that persuades Often Old Man him to sell all his belongings and Devilish imagery become a hermit Temptations The Devil is jealous of his resolve and sends many temptations to trick the hermit – women, beasts, terrors St Agatha MARTYR Agatha wishes to remain chaste and Breasts being cut off rejects a Roman prefect’s advances Breasts on a plate He had her persecuted for her Christian Clutching Breasts Faith, including giving her to a brothel and having her breasts cut off She was cured by a vision of St Peter but rolled into a bed of coals and died in prison St Lucy MARTYR Lucy desires to remain chaste to honour Eyes on a plate Jesus Throat being cut A marriage with dowry was arranged People trying to move but Lucy insisted on giving it to poor and her remaining chaste Her betrothed had her persecuted for her faith She was dragged to be raped but her body could not be moved They plucked out her eyes St Catherine MARTYR A beautiful, well educated daughter of Richly dressed princess – Pagan rulers, she wished to remain a crown virgin and would only marry one more Martyr palm or wheel beautiful, wealthy, dignified and Attending virgin and child intelligent than her. Ring on finger Catherine visited Emperor Maxentius and tried to convince him persecuting Christians was wrong. He had all his greatest orators attempt to persuade her wrong but she converted them to Christianity. The orators were executed and Catherine was scourged and imprisoned. Over 200 people came to visit her and were converted Maxentius could not torture her away from Christianity and proposed to her, when she claimed she was married to Jesus. He sentenced her to death on a spiked breaking wheel which broke, and he beheaded her. Metamorphoses - Most important resource for Classical Greek mythology - Tales that interweave physical transformation and goes beyond nature - Gods are cruel and interfere in mortal lives - Sometimes revived in Christian moral senses - moralisé - Loose chronological order; little or no transition between stories  Genesis of world through four ages (Gold, Silver, Bronze and Iron) - Relatively unknown text until 12 century - “Painter’s Bible” Loose Transgression of Categories: I. Artistic Tales: how artists used myth to refer to own art II. Power and Traps of Sight III. Competition with Gods IV. Loves of Jupiter Shape changing: creation and recreation Renaissance Representations: art itself is a metamorphoses – rebirth, new technologies and representations, tools; self awareness PIGMENT  PAINT  CANVAS – a metamorphoses – results are different than their beginnings Versus Baroque Representations: movement, transition, drama, instability; portrays constant transformation NYMPH: Female minor deity; not immortal; often beautiful and attributed to an aspect of nature; do not die of old age; gave birth to immortal children when mating with Gods TITLE TYPE STORY REPRESENTATION APOLLO & COMPETITION Daphne desired to emulate Apollo: Bow and Arrow, red cape DAPHNE Diana and remain chaste Daphne: In stages of Eros shot Apollo with an arrowtransformation and he fell in love with Daphne Apollo chases the nymph until she begs to her father to be transformed Becomes a laurel tree Apollo took a branch and fashioned a crown of laurel PYGMALION ARTISTIC Pygmalion sculpted a woman of Workshop, stiff figure of white marble and fell in love with hmarble He begged Venus for a woman Pygmalion in adoration as beautiful as his sculpture SCULPTURE VS PAINTING: He kissed the sculpture as sheHow do you sculpt a sculpture came to life and she kisses hicoming to life? back Debate on which is more noble Sometimes the sculpture is an art named Galatea They had a child together MEDUSA POWER & TRAPS Medusa and her sisters were 1. Action of head chopping OF SIGHT very beautiful 2. Bleeding severed Poseidon raped Medusa in the head/dead body temple of Athena Perseus: soldier attire – chopping - Who then transformed head off the girl’s hair into Medusa: snake hair; gruesome serpents facial expression; in state of - Anyone who stares into having head chopped off her eyes turns to stone Renaissance: ACTION Baroque: HEAD Perseus Kills Medusa: Uses his shield to see her reflection to know where to chop her head off Athena takes her severed head and puts it on her shield IO & JUPITER LOVES OF Zeus falls in love with the White cow JUPITER nymph Io, and casts a dark Dark cloud cloud over the land to disguise his rape from his wife Juno She is suspicious and he turns Io into a white cow Juno begs for the cow as a present Io runs away after she is freed and goes crazy – begs for forgiveness and persuades Juno to let her be Becomes human again and bears a son who becomes god in Egyptian faith JUNO & POWER/TRAPS Juno asks her servant, Argus, Juno and peacocks ARGUS OF SIGHT the giant with one hundred - Peacocks without eyes eyes, to watch Io, and tie her to - Process of putting eyes an olive tree on Zeus sends Hermes disguised as - Dead Argus a shepherd to free Io Hermes & Argus: Hermes puts Argus to sleep with Shepherd and dozy hundred eye song and a story of the flute
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