Earth Sciences 1022A/B Study Guide - Chalcedony, Chert, Clay Minerals

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Published on 10 Oct 2012
School
Western University
Department
Earth Sciences
Course
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Sedimentary Rocks
For sed rocks I could ask for environment of deposition, name a
mineral in it, texture, or name the rock.
Sedimentary Environments
Alluvial Fans: stream deposits near the base of mountains; usually poorly
sorted and angular (breccia, arkose)
Fluvial Environment: river deposits of well sorted, rounded sediments
(sandstone, shale)
Eolian Environment: wind deposits which are well rounded, very well
sorted, and normally cross-bedded (sandstone)
Glacial Environment: sediments are very poorly sorted with subangular
to subrounded grains
Deltas: complex environment where thick accumulations of siltstone,
sandstone, and shale may be deposited
Karst Environment: carbonates (calcite, dolomite) extracted from
groundwater in limestone caves to form new carbonate deposits
(travertine)
Restricted Basin: evaporites (rock salt, gypsum, potash)
Shoreline Environment: sediment deposited in beaches, bars, spits,
lagoons are clean (well sorted; siltstone, sandstone, shale)
Organic Reefs: solid structures composed of shells and secretions of
marine organisms (highly fossiliferous limestone)
Shallow Marine Environment: cyclic sequences including shale,
sandstone, and limestone layers representing changes in sea level
Deep Ocean Environment: turbidity currents form fining upward, graded
deposits of well sorted angular grains; also thick deposits of microscopic
plankton skeletons accumulate as chalk
Conglomerate
-rounded rock fragments of
any composition
-
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Sandstone
-quartz
Siltstone
-quartz and clay minerals
Shale
-quartz and clay minerals
Arkose
-quartz, 25% feldspar
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Document Summary

For sed rocks i could ask for environment of deposition, name a mineral in it, texture, or name the rock. Alluvial fans: stream deposits near the base of mountains; usually poorly sorted and angular (breccia, arkose) Fluvial environment: river deposits of well sorted, rounded sediments (sandstone, shale) Eolian environment: wind deposits which are well rounded, very well sorted, and normally cross-bedded (sandstone) Glacial environment: sediments are very poorly sorted with subangular to subrounded grains. Deltas: complex environment where thick accumulations of siltstone, sandstone, and shale may be deposited. Karst environment: carbonates (calcite, dolomite) extracted from groundwater in limestone caves to form new carbonate deposits (travertine) Restricted basin: evaporites (rock salt, gypsum, potash) Shoreline environment: sediment deposited in beaches, bars, spits, lagoons are clean (well sorted; siltstone, sandstone, shale) Organic reefs: solid structures composed of shells and secretions of marine organisms (highly fossiliferous limestone) Shallow marine environment: cyclic sequences including shale, sandstone, and limestone layers representing changes in sea level.

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