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Final

Earth Sciences 1081A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Urban Air, Rainforest, Peak Oil


Department
Earth Sciences
Course Code
EARTHSCI 1081A/B
Professor
all
Study Guide
Final

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FINAL NOTES STARTING
Fossil Fuels
Fossilized remains of plants and animals
Formation takes millions of years
Non-renewable resources: consumption
faster than supply
Forms
a. Coal
b. Oil
c. Natural Gas
d.d.Tar sands
e. Oil shales
Supply 90% of the world energy
Stages in coal formation
Plant material
Peat
Lignite
Bituminous
Anthracite
Processing:
Easily accessed
Inexpensive to extract Energy
Problems:
Similar to other Fossil fuels
SO2, NOx
Toxic elements
Petroleum: rock oil, crude oil, “black gold”
Natural Gas: Methane CH4
Forms from organic material which
escaped complete decomposition after
burial
Altered enough to be mobile
How and where???
Deposition environments with little
oxygen
Submarine: deep water
Near shore: rapid deposition

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Formation Source rock
Oil and Gas
Reservoirs
Maturation
Reservoir
Cap Rock
Tar Sands Oil Shale
Large Deposits
Bitumen
Costly recovery
Large Deposits
Kerogen
Costly recovery
Peak Oil
When 50% of all oil on
earth has been
extracted and used
Fossil fuel combustion and effects
Urban Air Pollution
Greenhouse Gas emissions
Acid Rain
Global economic and political instability
Alternate energy sources
Nearly 90 percent of the world’s energy
needs are derived from non-renewable
fossil fuels
Nuclear Solar
Fission
reaction
Chain
reaction
235U
(enriched)
Passive systems
awnings
Active systems
mechanics to exchange
heat
Solar collectors heated
circulating water
Photovoltaic cells:
Silicon conductors convert
sunlight directly to
electricity
Other:
Biomass Fuel
Hydroelectric
Wind
Tidal raising and falling tides; bay of
Fundy
Geothermal
pollution
The presence of chemicals in high enough
concentrations to harm organisms, materials
and change climate
Natural Air Pollution
Some examples of natural air pollution
Volcanoes
Dust storms
Forest fires
Sources of Pollution
Stationary
Point sources
Fugitive
Regional
Primary Air Pollutants Secondary
Identifiable source From chemical
reactions
70% from fossil fuels
SO2 Emissions
Significant amount from fossil fuel
burnings
Oxidation to form sulfuric acid
Colorless, odorless
Dangerous impacts:
Metal corrosion

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Damage to plants and to lungs
of humans and animals
NOx Emissions
(forms nitric acid and smog)
100% Anthropogenic (Fossil Fuels)
Impact: Nose, eye, and throat
irritation, corrosion, harms plants
CO Emissions
90% from natural sources
10% from human-induced incomplete
burning of organic compounds
Colorless, odourless
Remains as a gas
Extremely toxic to humans and animals
even at very low
concentrations
Volatile organic Compounds VOC’s
Products used in dry cleaning,
degreasing detergent, graphic arts,
adhesive production
Hydrocarbons: Methane, butane,
propane, etc.
Benzine: toxic industrial solvent and
additive to fuel
LEAD TO…..
Acid Rain = Acid deposition
SO2, NOx + H2O Acid (H2SO4 or
HNO3)
Wet:
As rain fall
Dry:
As particulate
Matter modified later with water
Effects:
Damage to vegetation
Damage to fresh water ecosystems
Damage to human structures
Urban Air Pollution: Influence of
Metrology/Topography
Inversion layer: warm air overlying cool
air
Traps and concentrates pollutants
Measures Taken
1960’s and 70’s Catalytic converters:
CO, HC CO2 H2O
Recycle exhaust lowers NOx emissions
Leads to lead free gas
Control of SO/NO oxides Methods:
Burning low S coal fertilizer
Types of Smog
1. Sulfurous Smog = London Smog
e.g. fog
2. Photochemical Smog:
related to autos
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