Earth Sciences 1086F/G Study Guide - Galilean Moons, Impact Crater, Equatorial Ridge

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Planet
Satellite
Facts
Mars
Phobos
Tidally locked to Mars
Closest natural satellite to any planet
Shaped like a flattened loaf of bread
Parallel grooves
Will eventually crash into Mars
Largest crater is called “Stickney
Possibly a captured satellite
Diemos
Tidally locked to Mars
3 times farther from Mars
Smoother due to thick layers of dust
Experienced collisions in the past
Possibly a captured satellite
Jupiter
(the
Galilean
Satellites)
Callisto
Outermost of the Galilean Satellites
Possible internal layer of liquid water beneath outer layer of ice
Heavily cratered
Never fully differentiated
Ganymede
Largest of Jupiter’s satellites
Completely differentiated
Only planetary satellite known to have a magnetic field
N.B. heat from gravitational energy and radioactive decay important
Possibility of life (salt ocean)
Europa
Mostly rock and metal
Ice surface (often resurfaced)
Influenced by Jupiter’s magnetic field
Bombarded by energy particles because orbit is within Jupiter’s radiation
Possibility of life (salt ocean)
Io
High density
Iron core
About 150 continually active volcanoes
Suffers dramatic tides
Extremely dry
Saturn
Titan
Only satellite with its own atmosphere
Appears to have continents and oceans (large continent called Xanadu)
Something on the surface creating methane
Sand dunes and impact craters
Cryvolcanoes emit cold water and ices
Mimas
Looks like the Death Star
Huge impact crater
Iapetus
Enormous impact crater
Large equatorial ridge
Enceladus
Phenomenally fast orbit
Thought to be the source of the tenuous E-Ring around Saturn
Albedo resembles that of fresh snow or ice
Fountains of icy salt water and snow spew from troughs at the South Pole
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