earth rocks lab exam.pdf

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Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B

MINERALS Crystal Habit: shape Cubic, Octahedral, hexagonal, rhombohedral, dodecahedral Crystal Form: external shape ▯ equant- equidemenional (cube) ▯ tabular- flat tablet shaoed ▯ columnar or prismatic- elongated ▯ acicular- extremely elongated or needle-like Diaphaneity: ability to transmit light ▯ Opaque- all light is reflected (metallic minerals) ▯ translucent- some light is absorbed (most minerals) ▯ transparent- mo▯ st light is transmitted through (muscovite) Hardness: ▯ fingernail: 2.5 ▯ penny: 3 ▯ knife: 5.5 ▯ glass: 6 ▯ Ceramic plate: 7 felsic- lighter the rock mafic- darker the rock intermediate- composition between felsic and mafic ultramafic- produces only ferromagnesian (super dark) Cleavage: ▯ basal: single cleavage diretion ▯ 2 direction at right angle ▯ 2 directions not at right angle ▯ 3 cleavage directions at right angles ▯ rhombohedral: 3 cleavage directions not at right angles ▯ no cleavage SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENTS Alluvial Fans: stream deposits near the base of mountains (poorly sorted- Breccia) Fluvial Environment: river deposits of well sorted sediments (shale) Eolian Environment: wind deposits which are well rounded and very well sorted and normally cross blended (sandstone) Glacial Environment: very poorly sorted with subangular to sub rounded grains (tillite) Deltas: complex environment where thick accumulations of (siltstone, sandstone and shale may be deposited ) Karst Environment: carbonates are extracted from groundwat
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