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Final Exam Notes - Over 80%

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Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1081A/B
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FINAL NOTES STARTING Fossil Fuels Fossilized remains of plants and animals Formation takes millions of years Non-renewable resources: consumption faster than supply Forms a. Coal b. Oil c. Natural Gas Processing: Easily accessed Inexpensive to extract Energy Problems: Similar to other Fossil fuels SO2, NOx Toxic elements Petroleum: rock oil, crude oil, black gold Natural Gas: Methane CH4 Forms from organic material which escaped complete decomposition after burial Altered enough to be mobile How and where??? Deposition environments with little oxygen Submarine: deep water Near shore: rapid deposition d.d.Tar sands e. Oil shales Supply 90% of the world energy Stages in coal formation Plant material Peat Lignite Bituminous Anthracite Fission Passive systems reaction awnings Chain Active systems reaction mechanics to exchange 235U heat (enriched) Solar collectors heated circulating water Photovoltaic cells: Silicon conductors convert sunlight directly to electricity Other: Biomass Fuel Hydroelectric Wind Tidal raising and falling tides; bay of Fundy Geothermal Formation Source rock The presence of chemicals in high enough Oil and Gas Maturation pollution concentrations to harm organisms, materials and change climate Reservoirs Reservoir Cap Rock Natural Air Pollution Some examples of natural air pollution Tar Sands Oil Shale Volcanoes Large Deposits Large Deposits Dust storms Forest fires Bitumen Kerogen Sources of Pollution Costly recovery Costly recovery Stationary Point sources Fugitive Regional Primary Air Pollutants Secondary When 50% of all oil on earth has been Identifiable source From chemical Peak Oil extracted and used reactions 70% from fossil fuels Fossil fuel combustion and effects Urban Air Pollution Greenhouse Gas emissions Acid Rain SO2 Emissions Global economic and political instability Significant amount from fossil fuel Alternate energy sources burnings Nearly 90 percent of the worlds energy Oxidation to form sulfuric acid needs are derived from non-renewable Colorless, odorless fossil fuels Dangerous impacts: Nuclear Solar Metal corrosion Damage to plants and to lungs As rain fall of humans and animals Dry: NOx Emissions As particulate (forms nitric acid and smog) Matter modified later with water 100% Anthropogenic (Fossil Fuels) Effects: Impact: Nose, eye, and throat Damage to vegetation irritation, corrosion, harms plants Damage to fresh water ecosystems CO Emissions Damage to human structures 90% from natural sources 10% from human-induced incomplete Urban Air Pollution: Influence of burning of organic compounds Metrology/Topography Colorless, odourless Inversion layer: warm air overlying cool Remains as a gas air Extremely toxic to humans and animals Traps and concentrates pollutants even at very low concentrations Measures Taken
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