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Western University
Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1081A/B

Elemen Atoms with different characteristics ts Protons Positive charge Electro Negative charge ns Neutro Neutral ns Atomic Number of protons # At. Protons + Neutrons Mass Covale Strongest bonds share electrons nt Ionic Strong oppositely charged e Metallic Weak valence can migrate Intr/mo Weak chemical imbalance - graphite lec Solid Rigid Retains shape Liqui Flows easily d Conforms to shape Constant Volume Gas Flows easily Conforms to shape Changes volume to fill space Minerals Naturally occurring, inorganic solid Definite chemical composition, structure, physical characteristics Structure determines by positive ions (cations) or negative ions (anions) Rock A solid aggregate or mass of minerals Unit cells Combine to form minerals Cleavage How a rock breaks cubic, rhombohedra, or basal Igneous Crystallized from molten material Extrusive when created at surface, intrusive when not Classified by composition and texture Sediment Formed by deposition or precipitation of weathers transported ary material - sediment Metamor Formed by change of existing rock (meta + morph = to change phic form) Phaneriti Coarse grained (granite) abundant, associated with mountain c building Aphantic Fine grained (rhyolite) Limeston Most abundant made of calcite e Nonfollat Rocks w/ granular texture interlocking grains of granite ed Marble = metamorphic limestone/ quartzite = metamorphic Texture sandstone Foliated Schistosity platy minerals show a layers structure, referred to as schist, ie Gneissic Gneissic Banded appearance pressure and heat - follated Rate of cooling (slow cooling allows crystals to grow larger) affect the crystal size and shape Gabbro (P) vs. basalt (A): same composition, different texture Plate Tectonics Theory that the earths crust is a series of plates which move about the surface Plates move relative to each other at a slow, but constant rate Hot material rises up the ridges to form the crust Cooler, denser slabs of oceanic crust descend into the mantle Convection Transfer of heat in the mantleDivergent Plate Boundaries are located along ocean ridges Boundaries Basaltic volcanism Oceanic continental Oceanic crust converges with continental crust plate convergence Continental- Self explanatory continental plate convergence Transform fault boundaries Numerical or absolute Radiometric Dating: Using radioactivity to date minerals, rocks, and dating geologic events Principle of radiometric: ratio of parent-daughter; constant decay Significance of the Tectonic Cycle to the Environment Global zones o resources (oil, gas, mineral ores) Global belts of earthquakes and volcanic activities Impacts on the landscape and global climates Geologic knowledge or plate tectonics foundation for urban development and Todays Objectivesd mitigation How natural processes/hazards are beneficial to people Measurement of impact Link to history, processes, predictions, and risk # of deaths floods, assessment tornados, lightening Link between natural hazards, increased population, and changing land use Cost earthquakes Catastrophe Impact related to magnitude and frequency Risk to life Benefits of Hazards Loss of energy Add sediment Flood pollutant to coast Lack of warning Creates natural dams Population distribution Landslides Create new land Natural processes are repetitive, and therefore predictable Natural hazards can be linked hur
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